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Focused ion beam

About: Focused ion beam is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12154 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 179523 citation(s). The topic is also known as: FIB.

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1999-Micron
TL;DR: The use of focused ion beam (FIB) milling for the preparation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens is described in this article, where the operation of the FIB instrument is discussed and the conventional and lift-out techniques for TEM specimen preparation and the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are detailed.
Abstract: The use of focused ion beam (FIB) milling for the preparation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens is described The operation of the FIB instrument is discussed and the conventional and lift-out techniques for TEM specimen preparation and the advantages and disadvantages of each technique are detailed The FIB instrument may be used for rapid site-specific preparation of both cross-section and plan view TEM specimens

989 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the state of the art and level of understanding of direct ion and electron beam fabrication and point out some of the unsolved problems can be found in this article, where the authors also discuss structures that are made for research purposes or for demonstration of the processing capabilities.
Abstract: Beams of electrons and ions are now fairly routinely focused to dimensions in the nanometer range. Since the beams can be used to locally alter material at the point where they are incident on a surface, they represent direct nanofabrication tools. The authors will focus here on direct fabrication rather than lithography, which is indirect in that it uses the intermediary of resist. In the case of both ions and electrons, material addition or removal can be achieved using precursor gases. In addition ions can also alter material by sputtering (milling), by damage, or by implantation. Many material removal and deposition processes employing precursor gases have been developed for numerous practical applications, such as mask repair, circuit restructuring and repair, and sample sectioning. The authors will also discuss structures that are made for research purposes or for demonstration of the processing capabilities. In many cases the minimum dimensions at which these processes can be realized are considerably larger than the beam diameters. The atomic level mechanisms responsible for the precursor gas activation have not been studied in detail in many cases. The authors will review the state of the art and level of understanding of direct ion and electron beam fabrication and point out some of the unsolved problems.

878 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an overview of the variety of techniques that have been developed to prepare the final transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimen is presented, as well as the problems such as FIB-induced damage and Ga contamination.
Abstract: One of the most important applications of a focused ion beam (FIB) workstation is preparing samples for transmission electron microscope (TEM) investigation. Samples must be uniformly thin to enable the analyzing beam of electrons to penetrate. The FIB enables not only the preparation of large, uniformly thick, sitespecific samples, but also the fabrication of lamellae used for TEM samples from composite samples consisting of inorganic and organic materials with very different properties. This article gives an overview of the variety of techniques that have been developed to prepare the final TEM specimen. The strengths of these methods as well as the problems, such as FIB-induced damage and Ga contamination, are illustrated with examples. Most recently, FIB-thinned lamellae were used to improve the spatial resolution of electron backscatter diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray mapping. Examples are presented to illustrate the capabilities, difficulties, and future potential of FIB.

695 citations

01 Jan 1989
TL;DR: Brown et al. as discussed by the authors presented a computer simulation of the ion-beam extraction system using an off-resonance Microwave Ion Source (MIMO-IBS).
Abstract: PrefaceList of Contributors1 Introduction (Ian Brown)2 Plasma Physics (Ian Brown)21 Introduction22 Basic Plasma Parameters221 Particle Density222 Fractional Ionization223 Particle Temperature224 Particle Energy and Velocity225 Collisions23 The Plasma Sheath231 Debye Length232 Charge Neutrality233 Plasma Oscillations24 Magnetic Field Effects241 Gyro Orbits242 Gyro Frequencies243 Magnetic Confinement244 Magnetic and Plasma Pressure25 Ionization251 Electron Impact Ionization252 Multiple Ionization253 Photoionization254 Ion Impact Ionization255 Negative Ions256 Field Ionization3 Elementary Ion Sources (Ian Brown)31 Introduction32 Terminology33 The Quintessential Ion Source34 Ion Beam Formation35 Ion Beam Parameters36 An Example37 Conclusion4 Computer Simulation of Extraction (Peter Spdtke)41 Introduction42 Positive Ion Sources421 Filament Driven Cusp Sources422 Duoplasmatrons and Duopigatrons423 Vacuum Arc Ion Sources424 Laser Ion Sources425 ECR Ion Sources426 Penning Ion Sources43 Negative Ion and Electron Sources431 Hot Cathode Electron Sources432 Plasma Electron Sources433 H- Sources44 Conclusion5 Ion Extraction (Ralph Hollinger)51 Introduction52 Fundamentals of Ion Beam Formation in the Extraction System53 Beam Quality54 Sophisticated Treatment of Ion Beam Formation in the Extraction System55 Multi-Aperture Extraction Systems56 Starting Conditions6 Beam Transport (Peter Spdtke and Ralph Hollinger)61 Introduction611 Drift612 Extraction System and Acceleration Gap613 Low Energy Beam Line62 Current Effects63 Space-Charge Compensation631 Residual Gas Collisions632 Sputtering633 Preserving Space Charge Compensation634 Influence of Space Charge Compensation64 A LEBT System for the Future Proton Linac at GSI641 Compound System642 Pentode or Two-Gap System643 Triode System and DCPost-A cceleration644 Discussion7 High Current Gaseous Ion Sources (Nikolai Gavrilov)71 Introduction72 Basic Types of High Current Ion Sources721 Filament Driven Ion Sources722 High-Frequency Ion Sources723 Cold Cathode Ion Sources73 Conclusion8 Freeman and Bernas Ion Sources (Marvin Farley, Peter Rose, and Geoffrey Ryding)81 Introduction82 The Freeman Ion Source83 The Bernas Ion Source84 Further Discussion of the Source Plasma841 Plasma and Sheath Potentials842 Effect of Sputtering on the Plasma843 Ion Heating of the Cathode and Anticathode in the Bernas Source844 Current Balance in the Freeman Source845 Current Balance in the Bernas Source85 Control Systems851 Freeman and Bernas Controls852 Bernas Indirectly Heated Cathode86 Lifetime and Maintenance Issues861 Use of BF3862 Use of PH3, AsH3, P4, and As4863 Use of Sb, Sb2O3, and SbF3864 Use of SiF4 and GeF4865 General Guidelines for the Use of Other Organic and Inorganic Compounds866 Electrode Cleaning and Maintenance867 Insulator Cleaning and Maintenance9 Radio-Frequency Driven Ion Sources (Ka-Ngo Leung)91 Introduction92 Capacitively Coupled RF Sources93 Inductively Coupled RF Sources931 Source Operation with an External RF Antenna932 Multicusp Source Operation with Internal RF Antenna933 Increasing the Ion Beam Brightness of a Multicusp RF Source with Internal Antenna934 Multicusp Source Operation with External RF Antenna94 Applications of RF Ion Sources10 Microwave Ion Sources (Noriyuki Sakudo)101 Introduction102 Microwave Plasma in Magnetic Fields1021 Plasma Parameter Changes due to Magnetic Field and Microwave Frequency1022 High Density Plasma at Off-Resonance103 Some Practical Ion Source Considerations1031 Microwave Impedance Matching to the Plasma1032 High Current Ion Beams Extracted from an Off-Resonance Microwave Ion Source104 Versatility of Beam Extraction1041 Large Cross Sectional Beam formed by a Multi-Aperture Extractor1042 Slit-Shaped Beam for Ion Implantation1043 Further Improvements in Slit-Shaped Beams1044 Compact Microwave Ion Sources105 Diversity of Available Ion Species106 Microwave Ion Sources for Commercial Implanters1061 Semiconductor Device Fabrication1062 SOI Wafer Fabrication107 Conclusion11 ECR Ion Sources (Daniela Leitner and Claude Lyneis)111 Introduction112 Brief History of the Development of ECR Ion Sources113 The LBNL ECR Ion Sources1131 The AECR-U Ion Source1132 The VENUS ECR Ion Source114 Physics and Operation of ECR Ion Sources1141 Electron Impact Ionization1142 Charge Exchange1143 Plasma Confinement1144 ECR Heating1145 Gas Mixing115 Design Considerations116 Microwave and Magnetic Field Technologies117 Metal Ion Beam Production1171 Direct Insertion1172 Sputtering1173 Gaseous or Volatile Compounds (MIVOC Method)1174 External Furnaces (Ovens)1175 Efficiencies118 Ion Beam Extraction from ECR Ion Sources1181 Influence of Magnetic Field and Ion Temperature on the Extracted Ion Beam Emittance1182 Influence of Plasma Confinement on Beam Emittance119 Conclusion12 Laser Ion Sources (Boris Sharkov)121 Introduction122 Basics of Laser Plasma Physics123 General Description1231 Laser Characteristics1232 Target Illumination System1233 Target Ensemble1234 Pulse Width and Target-Extractor Separation1235 Extraction System1236 Low Energy Beam Transport Line (LEBT)124 Beam Parameters1241 Current Profile1242 Charge State Distribution1243 Beam Emittance1244 Pulse Stability and Source Lifetime125 Sources at Accelerators1251 The LIS at ITEP-TWAC1252 The LIS at CERN1253 The LIS at JINR Dubna126 Other Operating Options1261 High Current, Low Charge State Mode1262 Influence of Magnetic Field on the Laser Ion Source Plasma127 Conclusion13 Vacuum Arc Ion Sources (Efim Oks and Ian Brown)131 Introduction132 Background133 Vacuum Arc Plasma Physics134 Principles of Operation135 Beam Parameters1351 Beam Current1352 Beam Profile, Divergence and Emittance1353 Beam Composition1354 Beam Noise, Pulse Stability, and Lifetime136 Recent Improvements in Parameters and Performance1361 Enhancement of Ion Charge States1362 Alternative Triggering of the Vacuum Arc1363 Reduction in Ion Beam Noise and Increased Pulse Stability1364 Generation of Gaseous Ions137 Source Embodiments1371 LBNL Mevva Sources1372 HCEI Titan Sources1373 NPI Raduga Sources1374 GSI Varis Sources1375 Other Versions and Variants138 Conclusion14 Negative Ion Sources (Junzo Ishikawa)141 Introduction142 Surface Effect Negative Ion Sources1421 Negative Ion Production by Surface Effect1422 Surface Effect Light Negative Ion Sources1423 Surface Effect Heavy Negative Ion Sources143 Volume Production Negative Ion Sources1431 Negative Ion Formation by Volume Production1432 History of Source Development1433 Recent Volume Production Negative Ion Sources144 Charge Transfer Negative Ion Sources1441 Negative Ion Production by Charge Transfer1442 History of Charge Transfer Negative Ion Sources145 Conclusion15 Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion (Joe Kwan)151 Introduction1511 Heavy Ion Beam Driven Inertial Fusion1512 HIF Ion Source Requirements152 Beam Extraction and Transport1521 Scaling Laws for Beam Extraction and Transport1522 Large Beam vs Multiple Small Beamlets153 Surface Ionization Sources1531 Contact Ionizers1532 Aluminosilicate Sources1533 Surface Ionization Sources for HIF154 Gas Discharge Ion Sources for HIF155 Pulsed Discharge Sources1551 Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc Sources for HIF1581 Laser Ion Sources for HIF156 Negative Ion Sources for HIF157 HIF Injector Designs1571 Large Diameter Source Approach1572 Merging Multiple Beamlets Approach158 Conclusion16 Giant Ion Sources for Neutral Beams (Yasuhiko Takeiri)161 Introduction162 Large Volume Plasma Production1621 Bucket Plasma Sources with Multi-Cusp Magnetic Field1622 Plasma Modeling1623 Atomic Fraction163 Large Area Beam Extraction and Acceleration1631 Electrode Systems for Large Area Beams1632 Beamlet Steering164 Giant Positive Ion Sources165 Giant Negative Ion Sources1651 Operational Principles of Negative Ion Sources1652 Negative Ion Extraction and Acceleration1653 Giant Negative Ion Sources166 Future Directions of DevelopmentAppendicesAppendix 1: Physical ConstantsAppendix 2: Some Plasma ParametersAppendix 3: Table of the ElementsIndex

687 citations

26 Aug 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a detailed overview of the field ion microscopy (FIM) and its application in the field of materials science and engineering, as well as an analysis of the image in a pure material.
Abstract: Preface Acknowledgements List of Acronyms and Abbreviations List of Terms List of Non-SI Units and Constant Values PART I Fundamentals 1. Introduction 2. Field Ion Microscopy 2.1 Principles 2.1.1 Theory of field ionisation 2.1.2 'Seeing' atoms - field ion microscopy 2.1.3 Spatial resolution of the FIM 2.2 Instrumentation and Techniques for FIM 2.2.1 FIM instrumentation 2.2.2 eFIM or digital FIM 2.2.3 Tomographic FIM Techniques 2.3 Interpretation of FIM Images 2.3.1 Interpretation of the image in a pure material 2.3.2 Interpretation of the image for alloys 2.3.3 Selected applications of the FIM 2.3.4 Summary 3 From Field Desorption Microscopy to Atom Probe Tomography 3.1 Principles 3.1.1 Theory of field evaporation 3.1.2 'Analysing' atoms one-by-one: atom probe tomography 3.2 Instrumentation and Techniques for APT 3.2.1 Experimental setup 3.2.2 Field desorption microscopy 3.2.3 High voltage pulsing techniques 3.2.4 Laser pulsing techniques 3.2.5 Energy compensation techniques Part II Practical aspects 4. Specimen Preparation 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Sampling issues in microscopy for materials science and engineering 4.1.2 Specimen requirements 4.2 Polishing methods 4.2.1 The electropolishing process 4.2.2 Chemical polishing 4.2.3 Safety Considerations 4.2.4 Advantages and limitations 4.3 Broad ion beam techniques 4.4 Focused ion beam techniques 4.4.1 Cut-away methods 4.4.2 Lift-out methods 4.4.3 The final stages of FIB preparation 4.4.4 Understanding and minimising ion beam damage and other artefacts 4.5 Deposition methods 4.6 Methods for organic materials 4.6.1 Polymer microtips 4.6.2 Self-assembled monolayers 4.6.3 Cryopreparation 4.7 Other Methods 4.7.1 Dipping 4.7.2 Direct growth of suitable structures 4.8 Specimen geometry issues 4.8.1 Influence of specimen geometry on atom probe data 4.8.2 Stress states and specimen rupture 4.9 A guide to selecting an appropriate specimen preparation method 5. Experimental protocols in Field Ion Microscopy 5.1 Step-by-step procedures for FIM 5.2 Operational space of the field ion microscope 5.2.1 Imaging gas 5.2.2 Temperature 5.2.3 The best image field 5.2.4 Other parameters 5.2.5 Summary 6. Experimental protocols 6.1 Specimen alignment 6.2 Aspects of mass spectrometry 6.2.1 Detection of the ions 6.2.2 Mass spectra 6.2.3 Formation of the mass spectrum 6.2.4 Mass resolution 6.2.5 Common artefacts 6.2.6 Elemental identification 6.2.7 Measurement of the composition 6.2.8 Detectability 6.3 Operational space 6.3.1 Flight path 6.3.2 Temperature / Pulse fraction 6.3.3 Selecting the pulsing mode 6.3.4 Pulse rate 6.3.5 Detection rate 6.4 Specimen failure 6.5 Data quality assessment 6.5.1 Field desorption map 6.5.2 Mass spectrum 6.5.3 Multiple events 6.5.4 Discussion 7. Tomographic reconstruction 7.1 Projection of the ions 7.1.1 Estimation of the electric field 7.1.2 Field distribution 7.1.3 Ion trajectories 7.1.4 Point projection 7.1.5 Radial projection with angular compression 7.1.6 Discussion 7.2 Reconstruction 7.2.1 General considerations 7.2.2 Bas et al. protocol 7.2.3 Geiser et al. protocol 7.2.4 Gault et al. protocol 7.2.5 Reflectron-fitted instruments 7.2.6 Summary and discussion 7.3 Calibration of the parameters 7.3.2 Discussion 7.3.3 Limitations of the current procedure 7.4 Common artefacts 7.4.2 Correction of the reconstruction 7.5 Perspectives on the reconstruction in atom probe tomography 7.5.1 Advancing the reconstruction by correlative microscopy 7.5.2 In correlation with simulations 7.5.3 Alternative ways to exploit existing data 7.6 Spatial resolution in APT 7.6.1 Introduction 7.6.2 Means of investigation 7.6.3 Definition 7.6.4 On the in-depth resolution 7.6.5 On the lateral resolution 7.6.6 Optimisation of the spatial resolution 7.7 Lattice rectification PART III Applying atom probe techniques for materials science 8. Analysis techniques for atom probe tomography 8.1 Characterising the Mass Spectrum 8.1.1 Noise Reduction 8.1.2 Quantifying Peak Contributions via Isotope Natural Abundances 8.1.3 Spatially dependent identification of mass peaks 8.1.4 Multiple Detector Event Analyses 8.2 Characterising the chemical distribution 8.2.1 Quality of atom probe data 8.2.2 Random comparators 8.3 Grid-based counting statistics 8.3.1 Voxelisation 8.3.2 Density 8.3.3 Concentration analyses 8.3.4 Smoothing by delocalisation 8.3.5 Visualisation techniques based on iso-concentration and iso-density 8.3.6 One-dimensional profiles 8.3.7 Grid-based frequency distribution analyses 8.4 Techniques for describing atomic architecture 8.4.1 Nearest neighbour distributions 8.4.2 Cluster Identification Algorithms 8.4.3 Detection Efficiency Influence on Nanostructural Analyses 8.5 Radial Distribution 8.5.1 Radial distribution and pair correlation functions 8.5.2 Solute Short Range Order Parameters 8.6 Structural Analyses 8.6.1 Fourier Transforms for APT 8.6.2 Spatial Distribution Maps 8.6.3 Hough Transform 9. Atom probe microscopy and materials science 9.1 Compositional analysis 9.2 Defects/ dislocations 9.3 Solid solutions / clustering 9.4 Precipitates 9.5 Ordering reaction 9.6 Spinodal decomposition 9.7 Interface/boundaries/layers 9.8 Amorphous materials 9.9 Atom probe crystallography Appendices A. Appendix - chi2 distribution B. Appendix - Polishing chemicals and conditions C. File formats used in APT POS EPOS RNG RRNG ATO ENV PoSAP Cameca root files - RRAW, RHIT, ROOT D. Appendix - Image Hump Model Predictions E. Appendix - Essential Crystallography for APT Bravais lattices Notation Structure factor (F) rules for BCC, FCC, HCP Interplanar spacings (dhkl) Interplanar angles (phi) F. Stereographic Projections and commonly observed desorption maps Stereographic projection for the most commonly found structures and orientations Face-centred cubic Body-centred cubic Diamond cubic Hexagonal close-packed G. Periodic tables H. Kingham Curves I. List of elements and associated mass to charge ratios J. Possible element identity of peaks as a function of their location in the mass spectrum

681 citations

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