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Foot (unit)

About: Foot (unit) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8901 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 103290 citation(s). The topic is also known as: ft & feet. more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.293.2.217
12 Jan 2005-JAMA
Abstract: ContextAmong persons diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus, the prevalence of foot ulcers is 4% to 10%, the annual population-based incidence is 1.0% to 4.1%, and the lifetime incidence may be as high as 25%. These ulcers frequently become infected, cause great morbidity, engender considerable financial costs, and are the usual first step to lower extremity amputation.ObjectiveTo systematically review the evidence on the efficacy of methods advocated for preventing diabetic foot ulcers in the primary care setting.Data Sources, Study Selection, and Data ExtractionThe EBSCO, MEDLINE, and the National Guideline Clearinghouse databases were searched for articles published between January 1980 and April 2004 using database-specific keywords. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were also searched, along with the Cochrane Library and relevant Web sites. We reviewed the retrieved literature for pertinent information, paying particular attention to prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical trials.Data SynthesisPrevention of diabetic foot ulcers begins with screening for loss of protective sensation, which is best accomplished in the primary care setting with a brief history and the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. Specialist clinics may quantify neuropathy with biothesiometry, measure plantar foot pressure, and assess lower extremity vascular status with Doppler ultrasound and ankle-brachial blood pressure indices. These measurements, in conjunction with other findings from the history and physical examination, enable clinicians to stratify patients based on risk and to determine the type of intervention. Educating patients about proper foot care and periodic foot examinations are effective interventions to prevent ulceration. Other possibly effective clinical interventions include optimizing glycemic control, smoking cessation, intensive podiatric care, debridement of calluses, and certain types of prophylactic foot surgery. The value of various types of prescription footwear for ulcer prevention is not clear.ConclusionsSubstantial evidence supports screening all patients with diabetes to identify those at risk for foot ulceration. These patients might benefit from certain prophylactic interventions, including patient education, prescription footwear, intensive podiatric care, and evaluation for surgical interventions. more

Topics: Diabetic foot (66%), Diabetic foot ulcer (55%), Population (51%) more

2,177 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2337/DIACARE.22.3.382
01 Mar 1999-Diabetes Care
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of foot ulcers in a large cohort of patients with diabetes, the risk of developing serious complications after diagnosis, and the attributable cost of care compared with that in patients without foot ulcers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with diabetes in a large staff-model health maintenance organization from 1993 to 1995. Patients with diabetes were identified by algorithm using administrative, laboratory, and pharmacy records. The data were used to calculate incidence of foot ulcers, risk of osteomyelitis, amputation, and death after diagnosis of foot ulcer, and attributable costs in foot ulcer patients compared with patients without foot ulcers. RESULTS: Among 8,905 patients identified with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, 514 developed a foot ulcer over 3 years of observation (cumulative incidence 5.8%). On or after the time of diagnosis, 77 (15%) patients developed osteomyelitis and 80 (15.6%) required amputation. Survival at 3 years was 72% for the foot ulcer patients versus 87% for a group of age- and sex-matched diabetic patients without foot ulcers (P more

Topics: Foot (unit) (55%), Cumulative incidence (54%), Retrospective cohort study (52%) more

1,025 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMRA1615439
Abstract: Foot ulceration is the most common lower-extremity complication in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review considers the pathogenesis, treatment, and management of diabetic foot ulcers, including prevention of recurrence. more

Topics: Diabetic foot (78%), Diabetic foot ulcer (60%), Diabetes mellitus (53%) more

994 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2337/DIACARE.22.1.157
01 Jan 1999-Diabetes Care
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and constellations of anatomic, pathophysiologic, and environmental factors involved in the development of incident diabetic foot ulcers in patients with diabetes and no history of foot ulcers from Manchester, U.K., and Seattle, Washington, research settings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Rothman model of causation was applied to the diabetic foot ulcer condition. The presence of structural deformities, peripheral neuropathy, ischemia, infection, edema, and callus formation was determined for diabetic individuals with incident foot ulcers in Manchester and Seattle. Demographic, health, diabetes, and ulcer data were ascertained for each patient. A multidisciplinary group of foot specialists blinded to patient identity independently reviewed detailed abstracts to determine component and sufficient causes present and contributing to the development of each patient9s foot ulcer. A modified Delphi process assisted the group in reaching consensus on component causes for each patient. Estimates of the proportion of ulcers that could be ascribed to each component cause were computed. RESULTS: From among 92 study patients from Manchester and 56 from Seattle, 32 unique causal pathways were identified. A critical triad (neuropathy, minor foot trauma, foot deformity) was present in > 63% of patient9s causal pathways to foot ulcers. The components edema and ischemia contributed to the development of 37 and 35% of foot ulcers, respectively. Callus formation was associated with ulcer development in 30% of the pathways. Two unitary causes of ulcer were identified, with trauma and edema accounting for 6 and more

Topics: Diabetic foot (72%), Foot deformity (62%), Diabetic foot ulcer (57%) more

935 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1046/J.1464-5491.2002.00698.X
Caroline A. Abbott, Anne L. Carrington, H. Ashe, S. Bath  +13 moreInstitutions (2)
01 May 2002-Diabetic Medicine
Abstract: Aims To determine the incidence of, and clinically relevant risk factors for, new foot ulceration in a large cohort of diabetic patients in the community healthcare setting. Methods Diabetic patients (n = 9710) underwent foot screening in six districts of North-west England in various healthcare settings. All were assessed at baseline for demographic information, medical and social history, neuropathy symptom score, neuropathy disability score, cutaneous pressure perception (insensitivity to the 10 g monofilament), foot deformities, and peripheral pulses. Two years later, patients were followed up via postal questionnaire to determine the incidence of new foot ulcers. Cox’s proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the independent, relative risk of baseline variables for new foot ulceration. Results New foot ulcers occurred in 291/6613 patients who completed and returned their 2-year follow-up questionnaire (2.2% average annual incidence). The following factors were independently related to new foot ulcer risk: ulcer present at baseline (relative risk (95% confidence interval)) 5.32 (3.71–7.64), past history of ulcer 3.05 (2.16–4.31), abnormal neuropathy disability score (≥ 6/10) 2.32 (1.61–3.35), any previous podiatry attendance 2.19 (1.50–3.20), insensitivity to the 10 g monofilament 1.80 (1.36–2.39), reduced pulses 1.80 (1.40–2.32), foot deformities 1.57 (1.22–2.02), abnormal ankle reflexes 1.55 (1.01–2.36) and age 0.99 (0.98–1.00). Conclusions More than 2% of community-based diabetic patients develop new foot ulcers each year. The neuropathy disability score, 10 g monofilament and palpation of foot pulses are recommended as screening tools in general practice. more

Topics: Foot (unit) (56%), Risk factor (51%), Relative risk (51%) more

877 Citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Hylton B. Menz

62 papers, 2.9K citations

Andrew J.M. Boulton

20 papers, 5.6K citations

Elly Trepman

18 papers, 265 citations

Marian T. Hannan

18 papers, 668 citations

Michael Edmonds

18 papers, 175 citations

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