About: Formate oxidation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 352 publications have been published within this topic receiving 13480 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: FDH1 demonstrates the feasibility of interconverting CO2 and formate electrochemically, and it is a template for the development of robust synthetic catalysts suitable for practical applications.
Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a kinetically and thermodynamically stable molecule. It is easily formed by the oxidation of organic molecules, during combustion or respiration, but is difficult to reduce. The production of reduced carbon compounds from CO2 is an attractive proposition, because carbon-neutral energy sources could be used to generate fuel resources and sequester CO2 from the atmosphere. However, available methods for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 require excessive overpotentials (are energetically wasteful) and produce mixtures of products. Here, we show that a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase enzyme (FDH1) adsorbed to an electrode surface catalyzes the efficient electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formate. Electrocatalysis by FDH1 is thermodynamically reversible—only small overpotentials are required, and the point of zero net catalytic current defines the reduction potential. It occurs under thoroughly mild conditions, and formate is the only product. Both as a homogeneous catalyst and on the electrode, FDH1 catalyzes CO2 reduction with a rate more than two orders of magnitude faster than that of any known catalyst for the same reaction. Formate oxidation is more than five times faster than CO2 reduction. Thermodynamically, formate and hydrogen are oxidized at similar potentials, so formate is a viable energy source in its own right as well as an industrially important feedstock and a stable intermediate in the conversion of CO2 to methanol and methane. FDH1 demonstrates the feasibility of interconverting CO2 and formate electrochemically, and it is a template for the development of robust synthetic catalysts suitable for practical applications.
TL;DR: The finding that Escherichia coli can ferment glycerol in a pH-dependent manner should enable the development of an E. coli-based platform for the anaerobic production of reduced chemicals from Glycerol at yields higher than those obtained from common sugars, such as glucose.
Abstract: The worldwide surplus of glycerol generated as inevitable byproduct of biodiesel fuel and oleochemical production is resulting in the shutdown of traditional glycerol-producing/refining plants and new applications are needed for this now abundant carbon source. In this article we report our finding that Escherichia coli can ferment glycerol in a pH-dependent manner. We hypothesize that glycerol fermentation is linked to the availability of CO(2), which under acidic conditions is produced by the oxidation of formate by the enzyme formate hydrogen lyase (FHL). In agreement with this hypothesis, glycerol fermentation was severely impaired by blocking the activity of FHL. We demonstrated that, unlike CO(2), hydrogen (the other product of FHL-mediated formate oxidation) had a negative impact on cell growth and glycerol fermentation. In addition, supplementation of the medium with CO(2) partially restored the ability of an FHL-deficient strain to ferment glycerol. High pH resulted in low CO(2) generation (low activity of FHL) and availability (most CO(2) is converted to bicarbonate), and consequently very inefficient fermentation of glycerol. Most of the fermented glycerol was recovered in the reduced compounds ethanol and succinate (93% of the product mixture), which reflects the highly reduced state of glycerol and confirms the fermentative nature of this process. Since glycerol is a cheap, abundant, and highly reduced carbon source, our findings should enable the development of an E. coli-based platform for the anaerobic production of reduced chemicals from glycerol at yields higher than those obtained from common sugars, such as glucose.
TL;DR: The findings suggest that light emission by phagocytosing polymorphonuclear leukocytes is dependent on both myeloperoxidase-catalyzed reactions and the superoxide anion, and involves in part the excitation of the ingested particle.
Abstract: The role of superoxide anion- and myeloperoxidase-dependent reactions in the light emission by phagocytosing polymorphonuclear leukocytes has been investigated using leukocytes that lack myeloperoxidase, inhibitors (azide, superoxide dismutase), and model systems. Our earlier finding that oxygen consumption, glucose C-1 oxidation, and formate oxidation are greater in polymorphonuclear leukocytes that lack myeloperoxidase than in normal cells during phagocytosis has been confirmed with leukocytes from two newly described myeloperoxidase-deficient siblings. Although the maximal rate of superoxide anion production by myeloperoxidase-deficient leukocytes is not significantly different from that of normal cells, superoxide production falls off less rapidly with time so that with prolonged incubation, it is greater in myeloperoxidase-deficient than in normal cells. Chemiluminescence by myeloperoxidase-deficient leukocytes during the early postphagocytic period however is decreased. Light emission by normal leukocytes is strongly inhibited by both superoxide dismutase and azide, whereas that of myeloperoxidase-deficient leukocytes, while still strongly inhibited by superoxide dismutase is considerably less sensitive to azide. Zymosan, the phagocytic particle employed in the intact cell system, considerably increased the chemiluminescence of a cell-free superoxide-H2O2 generating system (xanthine-xanthine oxidase) and a system containing myeloperoxidase, H2O2, and chloride. Light emission by the xanthine oxidase model system is strongly inhibited by superoxide dismutase and is not inhibited by azide, whereas the myeloperoxidase-dependent model system is strongly inhibited by azide but only slightly inhibited by superoxide dismutase. These findings suggest that light emission by phagocytosing polymorphonuclear leukocytes is dependent on both myeloperoxidase-catalyzed reactions and the superoxide anion, and involves in part the excitation of the ingested particle. These studies are discussed in relation to the role of the superoxide anion and chemiluminescence in the microbicidal activity of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte.
TL;DR: Alteredomonas putrefaciens provides a much needed microbial model for key reactions in the oxidation of sediment organic matter coupled to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.
Abstract: The ability of Alteromonas putrefaciens to obtain energy for growth by coupling the oxidation of various electron donors to dissimilatory Fe(III) or Mn(IV) reduction was investigated. A. putrefaciens grew with hydrogen, formate, lactate, or pyruvate as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. Lactate and pyruvate were oxidized to acetate, which was not metabolized further. With Fe(III) as the electron acceptor, A. putrefaciens had a high affinity for hydrogen and formate and metabolized hydrogen at partial pressures that were 25-fold lower than those of hydrogen that can be metabolized by pure cultures of sulfate reducers or methanogens. The electron donors for Fe(III) reduction also supported Mn(IV) reduction. The electron donors for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction and the inability of A. putrefaciens to completely oxidize multicarbon substrates to carbon dioxide distinguish A. putrefaciens from GS-15, the only other organism that is known to obtain energy for growth by coupling the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV). The ability of A. putrefaciens to reduce large quantities of Fe(III) and to grow in a defined medium distinguishes it from a Pseudomonas sp., which is the only other known hydrogen-oxidizing, Fe(III)-reducing microorganism. Furthermore, A. putrefaciens is the first organism that is known to grow with hydrogen as the electron donor and Mn(IV) as the electron acceptor and is the first organism that is known to couple the oxidation of formate to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV). Thus, A. putrefaciens provides a much needed microbial model for key reactions in the oxidation of sediment organic matter coupled to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.
TL;DR: The operon described, therefore, appears to comprise genes for redox carriers linking formate oxidation to proton reduction and for a hydrogenase of hitherto unique composition.
Abstract: Summary An 8kb segment of DNA from the 58/59 min region of the E. coli chromosome, which complements the defect of a mutant devoid of hydrogenase 3 activity, has been sequenced. Eight open reading frames were identified which are arranged in a transcriptional unit; all open reading frames were transcribed and translated in vivo in a T7 promoter/polymerase system. Analysis of the amino acid sequences derived from the nucleic acid sequences revealed that one of them, open reading frame 5 (0RF5), exhibits significant sequence similarity to conserved regions of the large subunit from Ni/Fe hydrogenases. Two of the open reading frames (orf2, orf6) code for proteins apparently carrying iron-sulphur clusters of the 4Fe/4S ferredoxin type. The product of one of the open reading frames, orf7, displays extensive sequence similarity with protein G from the chloroplast electron transport chain. ORF3 and ORF4, on the other hand, are extremely hydrophobic proteins with nine and six putative transmembrane helices, respectively. Over a limited hydrophilic sequence stretch, bordered by putative transmembrane areas, ORF3 and ORF4 exhibit homology with subunits 4 and 1 of mitochondrial and plastid NADH-ubiquinol oxidoreductases, respectively. The operon described, therefore, appears to comprise genes for redox carriers linking formate oxidation to proton reduction and for a hydrogenase of hitherto unique composition.
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