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Fossil fuel

About: Fossil fuel is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 23944 publications have been published within this topic receiving 502809 citations.


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13 Jan 1989
TL;DR: The early transformation of organic matter from organisms to geochemical fossils and Kerogen has been studied in the literature as mentioned in this paper, with a focus on the migration and accumulation of oil and gas.
Abstract: Production and Accumulation of Organic Matter: A Geological Perspective.- Production and Accumulation of Organic Matter The Organic Carbon Cycle.- Evolution of the Biosphere.- Biological Productivity of Modern Aquatic Environments.- Chemical Composition of the Biomass: Bacteria, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, Higher Plants.- Sedimentary Processes and the Accumulation of Organic Matter.- The Fate of Organic Matter in Sedimentary Basins: Generation of Oil and Gas.- Diagenesis, Catagenesis and Metagenesis of Organic Matter.- Early Transformation of Organic Matter: The Diagenetic Pathway from Organisms to Geochemical Fossils and Kerogen.- Geochemical Fossils and Their Significance in Petroleum Formation.- Kerogen: Composition and Classification.- From Kerogen to Petroleum.- Formation of Gas.- Formation of Petroleum in Relation to Geological Processes. Timing of Oil and Gas Generation.- Coal and its Relation to Oil and Gas.- Oil Shales: A Kerogen-Rich Sediment with Potential Economic Value.- The Migration and Accumulation of Oil and Gas.- An Introduction to Migration and Accumulation of Oil and Gas.- Physicochemical Aspects of Primary Migration.- Geological and Geochemical Aspects of Primary Migration.- Secondary Migration and Accumulation.- Reservoir Rocks and Traps, the Sites of Oil and Gas Pools.- The Composition and Classification of Crude Oils and the Influence of Geological Factors.- Composition of Crude Oils.- Classification of Crude Oils.- Geochemical Fossils in Crude Oils and Sediments as Indicators of Depositional Environment and Geological History.- Geological Control of Petroleum Type.- Petroleum Alteration.- Heavy Oils and Tar Sands.- Oil and Gas Exploration: Application of the Principles of Petroleum Generation and Migration.- Identification of Source Rocks.- Oil and Source Rock Correlation.- Locating Petroleum Prospects: Application of Principle of Petroleum Generation and Migration - Geological Modeling.- Geochemical Modeling: A Quantitative Approach to the Evaluation of Oil and Gas Prospects.- Habitat of Petroleum.- The Distribution of World Oil and Gas Reserves and Geological-Geochemical Implications.

5,819 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current state and perspectives of biogas production, including the biochemical parameters and feedstocks which influence the efficiency and reliability of the microbial conversion and gas yield are reviewed.
Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of energy crops, residues, and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation and as a vehicle fuel. For biogas production, various process types are applied which can be classified in wet and dry fermentation systems. Most often applied are wet digester systems using vertical stirred tank digester with different stirrer types dependent on the origin of the feedstock. Biogas is mainly utilized in engine-based combined heat and power plants, whereas microgas turbines and fuel cells are expensive alternatives which need further development work for reducing the costs and increasing their reliability. Gas upgrading and utilization as renewable vehicle fuel or injection into the natural gas grid is of increasing interest because the gas can be used in a more efficient way. The digestate from anaerobic fermentation is a valuable fertilizer due to the increased availability of nitrogen and the better short-term fertilization effect. Anaerobic treatment minimizes the survival of pathogens which is important for using the digested residue as fertilizer. This paper reviews the current state and perspectives of biogas production, including the biochemical parameters and feedstocks which influence the efficiency and reliability of the microbial conversion and gas yield.

2,440 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a review of the current approaches for the heterogeneous photocatalytic reduction of CO2 on TiO2 and other metal oxide, oxynitride, sulfide, and phosphide semiconductors.
Abstract: Rising atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves raise serious concerns about the ensuing effects on the global climate and future energy supply. Utilizing the abundant solar energy to convert CO2 into fuels such as methane or methanol could address both problems simultaneously as well as provide a convenient means of energy storage. In this Review, current approaches for the heterogeneous photocatalytic reduction of CO2 on TiO2 and other metal oxide, oxynitride, sulfide, and phosphide semiconductors are presented. Research in this field is focused primarily on the development of novel nanostructured photocatalytic materials and on the investigation of the mechanism of the process, from light absorption through charge separation and transport to CO2 reduction pathways. The measures used to quantify the efficiency of the process are also discussed in detail.

2,273 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of second generation biodiesel production systems using microalgae can be found in this paper, where the main advantages of second-generation microalgal systems are that they: (1) have a higher photon conversion efficiency (as evidenced by increased biomass yields per hectare): (2) can be harvested batch-wise nearly all-year-round, providing a reliable and continuous supply of oil: (3) can utilize salt and waste water streams, thereby greatly reducing freshwater use: (4) can couple CO2-neutral fuel production with CO2 sequestration: (
Abstract: The use of fossil fuels is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment that have already exceeded the “dangerously high” threshold of 450 ppm CO2-e. To achieve environmental and economic sustainability, fuel production processes are required that are not only renewable, but also capable of sequestering atmospheric CO2. Currently, nearly all renewable energy sources (e.g. hydroelectric, solar, wind, tidal, geothermal) target the electricity market, while fuels make up a much larger share of the global energy demand (∼66%). Biofuels are therefore rapidly being developed. Second generation microalgal systems have the advantage that they can produce a wide range of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane and biohydrogen. Biodiesel is currently produced from oil synthesized by conventional fuel crops that harvest the sun’s energy and store it as chemical energy. This presents a route for renewable and carbon-neutral fuel production. However, current supplies from oil crops and animal fats account for only approximately 0.3% of the current demand for transport fuels. Increasing biofuel production on arable land could have severe consequences for global food supply. In contrast, producing biodiesel from algae is widely regarded as one of the most efficient ways of generating biofuels and also appears to represent the only current renewable source of oil that could meet the global demand for transport fuels. The main advantages of second generation microalgal systems are that they: (1) Have a higher photon conversion efficiency (as evidenced by increased biomass yields per hectare): (2) Can be harvested batch-wise nearly all-year-round, providing a reliable and continuous supply of oil: (3) Can utilize salt and waste water streams, thereby greatly reducing freshwater use: (4) Can couple CO2-neutral fuel production with CO2 sequestration: (5) Produce non-toxic and highly biodegradable biofuels. Current limitations exist mainly in the harvesting process and in the supply of CO2 for high efficiency production. This review provides a brief overview of second generation biodiesel production systems using microalgae.

2,254 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article presented a bottom-up estimate of uncertainties in source strength by combining uncertainties in particulate matter emission factors, emission characterization, and fuel use, with uncertainty ranges of 4.3-22 Tg/yr for BC and 17-77 Tg /yr for OC.
Abstract: [1] We present a global tabulation of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous ‘‘bottom-up’’ inventories of black and organic carbon have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly dependent on combustion practice, we consider combinations of fuel, combustion type, and emission controls and their prevalence on a regional basis. Central estimates of global annual emissions are 8.0 Tg for black carbon and 33.9 Tg for organic carbon. These estimates are lower than previously published estimates by 25–35%. The present inventory is based on 1996 fuel-use data, updating previous estimates that have relied on consumption data from 1984. An offset between decreased emission factors and increased energy use since the base year of the previous inventory prevents the difference between this work and previous inventories from being greater. The contributions of fossil fuel, biofuel, and open burning are estimated as 38%, 20%, and 42%, respectively, for BC, and 7%, 19%, and 74%, respectively, for OC. We present a bottom-up estimate of uncertainties in source strength by combining uncertainties in particulate matter emission factors, emission characterization, and fuel use. The total uncertainties are about a factor of 2, with uncertainty ranges of 4.3–22 Tg/yr for BC and 17–77 Tg/yr for OC. Low-technology combustion contributes greatly to both the emissions and the uncertainties. Advances in emission characterization for small residential, industrial, and mobile sources and topdown analysis combining field measurements and transport modeling with iterative inventory development will be required to reduce the uncertainties further. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801); 0322 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Constituent sources and sinks; 0345 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution—urban and regional (0305); 0360 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation; 0365 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere—composition and chemistry; KEYWORDS: emission, black carbon, organic carbon, fossil fuel, biofuel, biomass burning

2,180 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20243
20232,010
20224,134
20211,547
20201,506
20191,484