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About: Fouling is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 13072 publications have been published within this topic receiving 327009 citations. The topic is also known as: deposit formation & encrustation.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of more than 300 publications on membrane bioreactor fouling is presented, and the authors propose updated definitions of key parameters such as critical and sustainable flux, along with standard methods to determine and measure the different fractions of the biomass.

2,113 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the properties of biomass relevant to combustion is briefly reviewed and the compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable, especially with respect to inorganic constituents important to the critical problems of fouling and slagging.

1,764 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fouling behaviour, fouling factors and fouling control strategies were discussed, and recent developments in membrane materials including low-cost filters, membrane modification and dynamic membranes were reviewed.

1,708 citations

01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors define and classify membrane separation processes, including phase-inversion process of membrane separations, chemical potential and osmosis, Vapor pressure, Osmotic pressure and chemical potential of membrane separation.
Abstract: Each chapter ends with a section of references. Introduction Definition and classification of membrane separation processes Historical developments Physical chemistry of membrane separations: Chemical potential and osmosis, Vapor pressure, Osmotic pressure and chemical potential Membrane Chemistry Definitions and classification: Depth vs. screen filters, Microporous vs. asymmetric membranes General methods of membrane manufacture: Phase Inversion Process of Membrane Manufacture Polymers used in membrane manufacture: Cellulose Acetate, Polyamide membranes, Polysulfone membranes, Other polymeric materials Composite membranes Inorganic membranes: Properties of inorganic membranes Membrane Properties Pore size: Bubble point and pressure techniques, Direct microscopic observation Predicting flux from pore statistics Passage (challenge) tests: Microfiltration membranes, Ultrafiltration membranes Factors affecting retentivity of membranes: Size of the molecule, Shape of the molecule, Membrane material, Presence of other solutes, Operating parameters, Lot-to-lot variability, Membrane configuration, Fouling and adsorption effects, The microenvironment Performance and Engineering Models The velocity boundary layer The concentration boundary layer Models for predicting flux: the pressure-controlled region Concentration polarization Mass transfer (film theory) model: Determining the mass transfer coefficient, Example The resistance model Osmotic pressure model for limiting flux Factors affecting flux: operating parameters: Feed concentration, Temperature, Flow rate and turbulence Physical properties of liquid streams: Density, Viscosity, Diffusion coefficients Experiment vs. theory: the "flux paradox" Design factors affecting flux Equipment Laboratory scale devices Industrial equipment: Tubular modules, Hollow fibers, Plate units, Spiral-wound Special modules: Rotary modules, Vibrating modules, Dean Vortices Summary Fouling and Cleaning Characteristics of fouling: Water flux Consequences of fouling Mathematical models of fouling Factors affecting fouling: Membrane properties, Solute properties, Process engineering factors affecting fouling Flux enhancement: Turbulence promoters/inserts/baffles, Back-flushing, -pulsing, -shocking and washing, Uniform transmembrane pressure/co-current permeate flow, Permeate back-pressure, Intermittent jets, Pulsatile flow, Electrical methods Summary: Membrane Fouling Cleaning membranes: Important factors during cleaning, Typical foulants and soils, Cleaning chemicals, Sanitizers Process Design Physics of the ultrafiltration process: Example Modes of operation: Discontinuous diafiltration (DD), Continuous diafiltration (CD), Dialysis ultrafiltration Batch vs. continuous operation: Batch operation, Single pass, Feed-and-bleed, Multistage operations, Example, Control methods Minimum process time Fractionation of macromolecules Energy requirements: Example Cost and process economics: Arrays and configurations, System cost Summary Applications Electrocoat paint The dairy industry: Fluid milk and fermented products, Cheese manufacture, Milk microfiltration, Cheese whey ultrafiltration, Microfiltration of whey Water treatment Wastewaters: Oily wastewater, Stillage from bioethanol plants, Caustic and acid recovery, Brine recovery, Printing ink, Laundry wastewater, Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration Textile industry Latex emulsions Pulp and paper industry Tanning and leather industries Sugar refining Soybean and other vegetable proteins Vegetable oils: Degumming, Deacidification, Bleaching, Removal of metals, Dewaxing, Clarifying Frying Oils Corn and other grains: Dextrose clarification, Protein processing Animal products: Red meat, Gelatin, Egg processing, Fish processing, Poultry industry Biotechnology applications: Separation and harvesting of microbial cells, Enzyme recovery, Affinity ultrafiltration, Membrane bioreactors Fruit juices and extracts Alcoholic beverages: Wine, Beer Appendices List of manufacturers of membrane equipment Conversion factors Books and general Glossary of terms Index More than 350 Tables and Figures Useful reference data is provided in 85 tables. Numerous schematics illustrate membranes, modules, equipment, and processes. Micrographs illustrate membranes and filtration. Here is a small sampling of this supplementary material. * Tables: Characteristics of membrane processes Comparison of energy requirements and costs between evaporation and membrane processes Methods of manufacture of synthetic membranes Materials used for the manufacture of membranes Properties of membrane filters requiring standardization Morphological parameters and bubble points for selected MF membranes-Pore size and surface porosity of ultrafiltration membranes Selected values of gel concentration-Diffusion coefficients-Relationship between channel size and surface area:volume ratio of membrane modules Hollow fibers from various manufacturers-Specifications of spiral-wound membranes from various manufacturers-Typical cleaning reagents and their modes of action-Operating economy of UF plants processing whole milk for cheese manufacture-Water purification process comparison Examples of affinity ultrafiltration Figures: Useful ranges of various separation processes-Classification of filters-Micrograph of multistage depth filter-Schematic representation of ultrastructure of an asymmetric (skinned) membrane-Typical structures of polyamide membranes-Comparison of the performance of commercial cellulose acetate and thin-film composite (polyamide) membranes-Ceramic membrane modules in their housing-Relationship between pore size, molecular weight of ideal solutes, and ratings of ideal and real membranes Permeability of large and small molecules through large and small pore membranes-Schematic representation of the cross section of typical asymmetric UF or MF membrane-Schematic of concentration polarization during UF of colloidal and macromolecular solutes . . .-Schematic of typical plate type membrane module-Multistage filtration sowing several feed-and-bleed systems connected in series-Membrane processing of cheese whey-Selection criteria of separation methods in biopro- cessing

1,679 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of critical flux is introduced in this article to identify the critical flux and the desirability of starting filtration operations at a low flux, where a flux below which a decline of flux with time does not occur.

1,336 citations

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