Topic

# Four-force

About: Four-force is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3459 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 87308 citation(s).

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

•

11 Jul 2011

TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce Semi-Riemannian and Lorenz geometries for manifold theory, including Lie groups and Covering Manifolds, as well as the Calculus of Variations.

Abstract: Manifold Theory. Tensors. Semi-Riemannian Manifolds. Semi-Riemannian Submanifolds. Riemannian and Lorenz Geometry. Special Relativity. Constructions. Symmetry and Constant Curvature. Isometries. Calculus of Variations. Homogeneous and Symmetric Spaces. General Relativity. Cosmology. Schwarzschild Geometry. Causality in Lorentz Manifolds. Fundamental Groups and Covering Manifolds. Lie Groups. Newtonian Gravitation.

3,419 citations

••

TL;DR: Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light deflection, the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion, and frame-dragging.

Abstract: The status of experimental tests of general relativity and of theoretical frameworks for analyzing them is reviewed and updated. Einstein’s equivalence principle (EEP) is well supported by experiments such as the Eotvos experiment, tests of local Lorentz invariance and clock experiments. Ongoing tests of EEP and of the inverse square law are searching for new interactions arising from unification or quantum gravity. Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light deflection, the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion, and frame-dragging. Gravitational wave damping has been detected in an amount that agrees with general relativity to better than half a percent using the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar, and a growing family of other binary pulsar systems is yielding new tests, especially of strong-field effects. Current and future tests of relativity will center on strong gravity and gravitational waves.

2,956 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, an approach to study the dynamics of thin shells of dust in general relativity is presented. But no mention of admissible or even any space-time co-ordinates is needed.

Abstract: An approach to shock waves, boundary surfaces and thin shells in general relativity is developed in which their histories are characterized in a purely geometrical way by the extrinsic curvatures of their imbeddings in space-time. There is some gain in simplicity and ease of application over previous treatments in that no mention of « admissible » or, indeed, any space-time co-ordinates is needed. The formalism is applied to a study of the dynamics of thin shells of dust.

2,090 citations

•

01 Sep 2007TL;DR: The field of Canonical Quantum General Relation (CQGR) as mentioned in this paper is an attempt to define a mathematically rigorous, non-perturbative, background independent theory of Lorentzian quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions in the continuum.

Abstract: This is an introduction to the by now fifteen years old research field of canonical quantum general relativity, sometimes called "loop quantum gravity". The term "modern" in the title refers to the fact that the quantum theory is based on formulating classical general relativity as a theory of connections rather than metrics as compared to in original version due to Arnowitt, Deser and Misner. Canonical quantum general relativity is an attempt to define a mathematically rigorous, non-perturbative, background independent theory of Lorentzian quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions in the continuum. The approach is minimal in that one simply analyzes the logical consequences of combining the principles of general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics. The requirement to preserve background independence has lead to new, fascinating mathematical structures which one does not see in perturbative approaches, e.g. a fundamental discreteness of spacetime seems to be a prediction of the theory providing a first substantial evidence for a theory in which the gravitational field acts as a natural UV cut-off. An effort has been made to provide a self-contained exposition of a restricted amount of material at the appropriate level of rigour which at the same time is accessible to graduate students with only basic knowledge of general relativity and quantum field theory on Minkowski space.

1,607 citations