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Four-stroke engine

About: Four-stroke engine is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6392 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 54920 citation(s). The topic is also known as: four-stroke cycle & four-stroke cycle engine.

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08 Feb 2000
Abstract: The development of four-stroke, spark-ignition engines that are designed to inject gasoline directly into the combustion chamber is an important worldwide initiative of the automotive industry. The thermodynamic potential of such engines for significantly enhanced fuel economy, transient response and cold-start hydrocarbon emission levels has led to a large number of research and development projects that have the goal of understanding, developing and optimizing gasoline direct-injection (GDI) combustion systems. The processes of fuel injection, spray atomization and vaporization, charge cooling, mixture preparation and the control of in-cylinder air motion are all being actively researched, and this work is reviewed in detail and analyzed. The new technologies such as high-pressure, common-rail, gasoline injection systems and swirl-atomizing gasoline fuel injectors are discussed in detail, as these technologies, along with computer control capabilities, have enabled the current new examination of an old objective; the direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC), gasoline engine. The prior work on DISC engines that is relevant to current GDI engine development is also reviewed and discussed. The fuel economy and emission data for actual engine configurations are of significant importance to engine researchers and developers. These data have been obtained and assembled for all of the available GDI literature, and are reviewed and discussed in detail. The types of GDI engines are arranged in four classifications of decreasing complexity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each class are noted and explained. Emphasis is placed upon consensus trends and conclusions that are evident when taken as a whole. Thus the GDI researcher is informed regarding the degree to which engine volumetric efficiency and compression ratio can be increased under optimized conditions, and as to the extent to which unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC), NOx and particulate emissions can be minimized for specific combustion strategies. The critical area of GDI fuel injector deposits and the associated effect on spray geometry and engine performance degradation are reviewed, and important system guidelines for minimizing deposition rates and deposit effects are presented. The capabilities and limitations of emission control techniques and aftertreatment hardware are reviewed in depth, and areas of consensus on attaining European, Japanese and North American emission standards are compiled and discussed. All known research, prototype and production GDI engines worldwide are reviewed as to performance, emissions and fuel economy advantages, and for areas requiring further development. The engine schematics, control diagrams and specifications are compiled, and the emission control strategies are illustrated and discussed. The influence of lean-NOx catalysts on the development of late-injection, stratified-charge GDI engines is reviewed, and the relative merits of lean-burn, homogeneous, direct-injection engines as an option requiring less control complexity are analyzed. All current information in the literature is used as the basis for discussing the future development of automotive GDI engines.

776 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of using unleaded gasoline–ethanol blends on SI engine performance and exhaust emission. A four stroke, four cylinder SI engine (type TOYOTA, TERCEL-3A) was used for conducting this study. Performance tests were conducted for equivalence air–fuel ratio, fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, brake power, engine torque and brake specific fuel consumption, while exhaust emissions were analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), using unleaded gasoline–ethanol blends with different percentages of fuel at three-fourth throttle opening position and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The results showed that blending unleaded gasoline with ethanol increases the brake power, torque, volumetric and brake thermal efficiencies and fuel consumption, while it decreases the brake specific fuel consumption and equivalence air–fuel ratio. The CO and HC emissions concentrations in the engine exhaust decrease, while the CO2 concentration increases. The 20 vol.% ethanol in fuel blend gave the best results for all measured parameters at all engine speeds.

479 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article presents the comparative bench testing results of a four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection, unmodified, naturally aspirated Diesel engine when operating on neat RME and its 5%, 10%, 20% and 35% blends with Diesel fuel. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of RME inclusion in Diesel fuel on the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of a high speed Diesel engine, its brake thermal efficiency, emission composition changes and smoke opacity of the exhausts. The brake specific fuel consumption at maximum torque (273.5 g/kW h) and rated power (281 g/kW h) for RME is higher by 18.7% and 23.2% relative to Diesel fuel. It is difficult to determine the RME concentration in Diesel fuel that could be recognised as equally good for all loads and speeds. The maximum brake thermal efficiency varies from 0.356 to 0.398 for RME and from 0.373 to 0.383 for Diesel fuel. The highest fuel energy content based economy (9.36–9.61 MJ/kW h) is achieved during operation on blend B10, whereas the lowest ones belong to B35 and neat RME. The maximum NOx emissions increase proportionally with the mass percent of oxygen in the biofuel and engine speed, reaching the highest values at the speed of 2000 min−1, the highest being 2132 ppm value for the B35 blend and 2107 ppm for RME. The carbon monoxide, CO, emissions and visible smoke emerging from the biodiesel over all load and speed ranges are lower by up to 51.6% and 13.5% to 60.3%, respectively. The carbon dioxide, CO2, emissions along with the fuel consumption and gas temperature, are slightly higher for the B20 and B35 blends and neat RME. The emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, HC, for all biofuels are low, ranging at 5–21 ppm levels.

432 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the performance and the pollutant emissions of a four-stroke SI engine operating on ethanol–gasoline blends of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with the aid of artificial neural network (ANN). The properties of bioethanol were measured based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. The experimental results revealed that using ethanol–gasoline blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine marginally. For ethanol blends it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased while the brake thermal efficiency (η and the volumetric efficiency (ηv) were increased. The concentration of CO and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when ethanol blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the ethanol. In contrast, the concentration of CO2 and NOx was found to be increased when ethanol is introduced. An ANN model was developed to predict a correlation between brake power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and emission components using different gasoline–ethanol blends and speeds as inputs data. About 70% of the total experimental data were used for training purposes, while the 30% were used for testing. A standard Back-Propagation algorithm for the engine was used in this model. A multi layer perception network (MLP) was used for nonlinear mapping between the input and the output parameters. It was observed that the ANN model can predict engine performance and exhaust emissions with correlation coefficient (R) in the range of 0.97–1. Mean relative errors (MRE) values were in the range of 0.46–5.57%, while root mean square errors (RMSE) were found to be very low. This study demonstrates that ANN approach can be used to accurately predict the SI engine performance and emissions.

349 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio multi fuel engine when fueled with waste cooking oil methyl ester and its 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% blends with diesel (on a volume basis) are investigated and compared with standard diesel. The suitability of waste cooking oil methyl ester as a biofuel has been established in this study. Bio diesel produced from waste sun flower oil by transesterification process has been used in this study. Experiment has been conducted at a fixed engine speed of 1500 rpm, 50% load and at compression ratios of 18:1, 19:1, 20:1, 21:1 and 22:1. The impact of compression ratio on fuel consumption, combustion pressures and exhaust gas emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum compression ratio which gives best performance has been identified. The results indicate longer ignition delay, maximum rate of pressure rise, lower heat release rate and higher mass fraction burnt at higher compression ratio for waste cooking oil methyl ester when compared to that of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency at 50% load for waste cooking oil methyl ester blends and diesel has been calculated and the blend B40 is found to give maximum thermal efficiency. The blends when used as fuel results in reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and increase in nitrogen oxides emissions.

335 citations

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