About: Foveal is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2652 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 94120 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: These results appear to provide an important model system for the study of the relationship between attention and the structure of the visual system, and it is found that attention shifts are not closely related to the saccadic eye movement system.
Abstract: Detection of a visual signal requires information to reach a system capable of eliciting arbitrary responses required by the experimenter. Detection latencies are reduced when subjects receive a cue that indicates where in the visual field the signal will occur. This shift in efficiency appears to be due to an alignment (orienting) of the central attentional system with the pathways to be activated by the visual input. It would also be possible to describe these results as being due to a reduced criterion at the expected target position. However, this description ignores important constraints about the way in which expectancy improves performance. First, when subjects are cued on each trial, they show stronger expectancy effects than when a probable position is held constant for a block, indicating the active nature of the expectancy. Second, while information on spatial position improves performance, information on the form of the stimulus does not. Third, expectancy may lead to improvements in latency without a reduction in accuracy. Fourth, there appears to be little ability to lower the criterion at two positions that are not spatially contiguous. A framework involving the employment of a limited-capacity attentional mechanism seems to capture these constraints better than the more general language of criterion setting. Using this framework, we find that attention shifts are not closely related to the saccadic eye movement system. For luminance detection the retina appears to be equipotential with respect to attention shifts, since costs to unexpected stimuli are similar whether foveal or peripheral. These results appear to provide an important model system for the study of the relationship between attention and the structure of the visual system.
TL;DR: The total number of foveal cones is similar for eyes with widely varying peak cone density, consistent with the idea that the variability reflects differences in the lateral migration of photoreceptors during development.
Abstract: We have measured the spatial density of cones and rods in eight whole-mounted human retinas, obtained from seven individuals between 27 and 44 years of age, and constructed maps of photoreceptor density and between-individual variability. The average human retina contains 4.6 million cones (4.08-5.29 million). Peak foveal cone density averages 199,000 cones/mm2 and is highly variable between individuals (100,000-324,000 cones/mm2). The point of highest density may be found in an area as large as 0.032 deg2. Cone density falls steeply with increasing eccentricity and is an order of magnitude lower 1 mm away from the foveal center. Superimposed on this gradient is a streak of high cone density along the horizontal meridian. At equivalent eccentricities, cone density is 40-45% higher in nasal compared to temporal retina and slightly higher in midperipheral inferior compared to superior retina. Cone density also increases slightly in far nasal retina. The average human retina contains 92 million rods (77.9-107.3 million). In the fovea, the average horizontal diameter of the rod-free zone is 0.350 mm (1.25 degrees). Foveal rod density increases most rapidly superiorly and least rapidly nasally. The highest rod densities are located along an elliptical ring at the eccentricity of the optic disk and extending into nasal retina with the point of highest density typically in superior retina (5/6 eyes). Rod densities decrease by 15-25% where the ring crosses the horizontal meridian. Rod density declines slowly from the rod ring to the far periphery and is highest in nasal and superior retina. Individual variability in photoreceptor density differs with retinal region and is similar for both cones and rods. Variability is highest near the fovea, reaches a minimum in the midperiphery, and then increases with eccentricity to the ora serrata. The total number of foveal cones is similar for eyes with widely varying peak cone density, consistent with the idea that the variability reflects differences in the lateral migration of photoreceptors during development. Two fellow eyes had cone and rod numbers within 8% and similar but not identical photoreceptor topography.
01 Nov 1999-Perception
TL;DR: Although the actions of tea-making are ‘automated’ and proceed with little conscious involvement, the eyes closely monitor every step of the process, suggesting that this type of unconscious attention must be a common phenomenon in everyday life.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of fixations during the performance of a well-learned task in a natural setting (making tea), and to classify the types of monitoring action that the eyes perform. We used a head-mounted eye-movement video camera, which provided a continuous view of the scene ahead, with a dot indicating foveal direction with an accuracy of about 1 deg. A second video camera recorded the subject's activities from across the room. The videos were linked and analysed frame by frame. Foveal direction was always close to the object being manipulated, and very few fixations were irrelevant to the task. The first object-related fixation typically led the first indication of manipulation by 0.56 s, and vision moved to the next object about 0.61 s before manipulation of the previous object was complete. Each object-related act that did not involve a waiting period lasted an average of 3.3 s and involved about 7 fixations. Roughly a third of all fixations on objects could be definitely identified with one of four monitoring functions: locating objects used later in the process, directing the hand or object in the hand to a new location, guiding the approach of one object to another (e.g. kettle and lid), and checking the state of some variable (e.g. water level). We conclude that although the actions of tea-making are 'automated' and proceed with little conscious involvement, the eyes closely monitor every step of the process. This type of unconscious attention must be a common phenomenon in everyday life.
01 May 1988-Archives of Ophthalmology
TL;DR: Evidence is presented that idiopathic senile macular hole is caused by focal shrinkage of the vitreous cortex in the foveal area and the clinical value of surgical peeling in eyes with stage 1 changes as a means of preventing hole formation is tested.
Abstract: Evidence is presented that idiopathic senile macular hole is caused by focal shrinkage of the vitreous cortex in the foveal area. The most reliable biomicroscopic signs of impending hole formation (stage 1) are the development of a yellow spot or ring in the center of the fovea, loss of the foveal depression, and no evidence of separation of the vitreous from the foveal retina. Although in a majority of eyes with stage 1 changes there is a progression to hole formation, spontaneous separation of the vitreous without hole formation may occur in some cases (44%) and cause characteristic biomicroscopic changes, including foveal reattachment, disappearance of the yellow spot or ring, and, in some cases, a pseudo-operculum, with one or more lamellar holes or facets. A prospective collaborative study is recommended to confirm these findings and to test the clinical value of surgical peeling of the vitreous cortex in eyes with stage 1 changes as a means of preventing hole formation.
01 May 1993-Vision Research
TL;DR: The spatially localized target and masks enabled investigation of space dependent lateral interactions between foveal and neighboring spatial channels, and showed a suppressive region extending to a radius of two wavelengths, in which the presence of the masking signals have the effect of increasing target threshold.
Abstract: We measured contrast detection thresholds for a foveal Gabor signal flanked by two high contrast Gabor signals. The spatially localized target and masks enabled investigation of space dependent lateral interactions between foveal and neighboring spatial channels. Our data show a suppressive region extending to a radius of two wavelengths, in which the presence of the masking signals have the effect of increasing target threshold. Beyond this range a much larger facilitatory region (up to a distance of ten wavelengths) is indicated, in which contrast thresholds were found to decrease by up to a factor of two. The interactions between the foveal target and the flanking Gabor signals are spatial-frequency and orientation specific in both regions, but less specific in the suppression region.
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