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Fracture (geology)

About: Fracture (geology) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 41081 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 677633 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In the course of an investigation of the effect of surface scratches on the mechanical strength of solids, some general conclusions were reached which appear to have a direct bearing on the problem of rupture, from an engineering standpoint, and also on the larger question of the nature of intermolecular cohesion. The original object of the work, which was carried out at the Royal Aircraft Estab­lishment, was the discovery of the effect of surface treatment—such as, for instance, filing, grinding or polishing—on the strength of metallic machine parts subjected to alternating or repeated loads. In the case of steel, and some other metals in common use, the results of fatigue tests indicated that the range of alternating stress which could be permanently sustained by the material was smaller than the range within which it was sensibly elastic, after being subjected to a great number of reversals. Hence it was inferred that the safe range of loading of a part, having a scratched or grooved surface of a given type, should be capable of estimation with the help of one of the two hypotheses of rupture commonly used for solids which are elastic to fracture. According to these hypotheses rupture may be expected if (a) the maximum tensile stress, ( b ) the maximum extension, exceeds a certain critical value. Moreover, as the behaviour of the materials under consideration, within the safe range of alternating stress, shows very little departure from Hooke’s law, it was thought that the necessary stress and strain calculations could be performed by means of the mathematical theory of elasticity.

9,348 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The application of indentation techniques to the evaluation of fracture toughness is examined critically, in two parts. In this first part, attention is focused on an approach which involves direct measurement of Vickers-produced radial cracks as a function of indentation load. A theoretical basis for the method is first established, in terms of elastic/plastic indentation fracture mechanics. It is thereby asserted that the key to the radial crack response lies in the residual component of the contact field. This residual term has important implications concerning the crack evolution, including the possibility of post indentation slow growth under environment-sensitive conditions. Fractographic observations of cracks in selected “reference” materials are used to determine the magnitude of this effect and to investigate other potential complications associated with departures from ideal indentation fracture behavior. The data from these observations provide a convenient calibration of the Indentation toughness equations for general application to other well-behaved ceramics. The technique is uniquely simple in procedure and economic in its use of material.

4,324 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A model of isotropic ductile plastic damage based on a continuum damage variable, on the effective stress concept and on thermodynamics is derived. The damage is linear with equivalent strain and shows a large influence of triaxiality by means of a damage equivalent stress. Identification for several metals is made by means of elasticity modulus change induced by damage. A comparison with the McClintock and Rice-Tracey models and with some experiments is presented for the influence of triaxiality on the strain to rupture.

1,992 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Results of an investigation are presented, which indicate that a fatigue crack, propagating under zero-to-tension loading may be partially or completely closed at zero load. An analysis of the stress distribution acting on the fracture surfaces shows that the local compressive stress maxima may exceed the yield stress of the material. Fractographic evidence is presented to show that crack closure may influence the shape of the striation pattern on the fracture surfaces.

1,747 citations

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