Free carrier absorption
About: Free carrier absorption is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1233 publications have been published within this topic receiving 24401 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors constructed a 3D infrared photonic crystal on a silicon wafer using relatively standard microelectronics fabrication technology, which showed a large stop band (10−14.5μm), strong attenuation of light within this band (∼12 dB per unit cell) and a spectral response uniform to better than 1 per cent over the area of the 6-inch wafer.
Abstract: The ability to confine and control light in three dimensions would have important implications for quantum optics and quantum-optical devices: the modification of black-body radiation, the localization of light to a fraction of a cubic wavelength, and thus the realization of single-mode light-emitting diodes, are but a few examples1,2,3. Photonic crystals — the optical analogues of electronic crystal — provide a means for achieving these goals. Combinations of metallic and dielectric materials can be used to obtain the required three-dimensional periodic variations in dielectric constant, but dissipation due to free carrier absorption will limit application of such structures at the technologically useful infrared wavelengths4. On the other hand, three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated in low-loss gallium arsenide show only a weak ‘stop band’ (that is, range of frequencies at which propagation of light is forbidden) at the wavelengths of interest5. Here we report the construction of a three-dimensional infrared photonic crystal on a silicon wafer using relatively standard microelectronics fabrication technology. Our crystal shows a large stop band (10–14.5 μm), strong attenuation of light within this band (∼12 dB per unit cell) and a spectral response uniform to better than 1 per cent over the area of the 6-inch wafer.
TL;DR: The detailed balance method for calculating the radiative recombination limit to the performance of solar cells has been extended to include free carrier absorption and Auger recombination in addition to radiative losses.
Abstract: The detailed balance method for calculating the radiative recombination limit to the performance of solar cells has been extended to include free carrier absorption and Auger recombination in addition to radiative losses. This method has been applied to crystalline silicon solar cells where the limiting efficiency is found to be 29.8 percent under AM1.5, based on the measured optical absorption spectrum and published values of the Auger and free carrier absorption coefficients. The silicon is assumed to be textured for maximum benefit from light-trapping effects.
TL;DR: Results indicate that tensile strained n-type Ge is a good candidate for Si integrated lasers, despite of the free carrier absorption loss.
Abstract: We analyze the optical gain of tensile-strained, n-type Ge material for Si-compatible laser applications. The band structure of unstrained Ge exhibits indirect conduction band valleys (L) lower than the direct valley (Γ) by 136 meV. Adequate strain and n-type doping engineering can effectively provide population inversion in the direct bandgap of Ge. The tensile strain decreases the difference between the L valleys and the Γ valley, while the extrinsic electrons from n-type doping fill the L valleys to the level of the Γ valley to compensate for the remaining energy difference. Our modeling shows that with a combination of 0.25% tensile strain and an extrinsic electron density of 7.6×1019/cm3 by n-type doping, a net material gain of ~400 cm-1 can be obtained from the direct gap transition of Ge despite of the free carrier absorption loss. The threshold current density for lasing is estimated to be ~6kA cm-2 for a typical edge-emitting double heterojunction structure. These results indicate that tensile strained n-type Ge is a good candidate for Si integrated lasers.
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of the amount of alumina in the target as well as the substrate temperature during sputter deposition has been investigated, leading to different conductivity and free carrier absorption in the near infrared.
Abstract: This study addresses the material properties of magnetron-sputtered aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films and their application as front contacts in silicon thin-film solar cells. Optimized films exhibit high conductivity and transparency, as well as a surface topography with adapted light-scattering properties to induce efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells. We investigated the influence on the ZnO:Al properties of the amount of alumina in the target as well as the substrate temperature during sputter deposition. The alumina content in the target influences the carrier concentration leading to different conductivity and free carrier absorption in the near infrared. Additionally, a distinct influence on the film growth of the ZnO:Al layer was found. The latter affects the surface topography which develops during wet-chemical etching in diluted hydrochloric acid. Depending on alumina content in the target and heater temperature, three different regimes of etching behavior have been i...
TL;DR: In this paper, a systematic study of the mechanisms of Au nanoparticle/TiO2-catalyzed photoreduction of CO2 and water vapor is carried out over a wide range of wavelengths.
Abstract: A systematic study of the mechanisms of Au nanoparticle/TiO2-catalyzed photoreduction of CO2 and water vapor is carried out over a wide range of wavelengths. When the photon energy matches the plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticles (free carrier absorption), which is in the visible range (532 nm), we observe a 24-fold enhancement in the photocatalytic activity because of the intense local electromagnetic fields created by the surface plasmons of the Au nanoparticles. These intense electromagnetic fields enhance sub-bandgap absorption in the TiO2, thereby enhancing the photocatalytic activity in the visible range. When the photon energy is high enough to excite d band electronic transitions in the Au, in the UV range (254 nm), a different mechanism occurs resulting in the production of additional reaction products, including C2H6, CH3OH, and HCHO. This occurs because the energy of the d band excited electrons lies above the redox potentials of the additional reaction products CO2/C2H6, CO2/CH3OH, and CO...