Topic

# Free surface

About: Free surface is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16352 publications have been published within this topic receiving 325165 citations.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, a new technique is described for the numerical investigation of the time-dependent flow of an incompressible fluid, the boundary of which is partially confined and partially free The full Navier-Stokes equations are written in finite-difference form, and the solution is accomplished by finite-time step advancement.

Abstract: A new technique is described for the numerical investigation of the time‐dependent flow of an incompressible fluid, the boundary of which is partially confined and partially free The full Navier‐Stokes equations are written in finite‐difference form, and the solution is accomplished by finite‐time‐step advancement The primary dependent variables are the pressure and the velocity components Also used is a set of marker particles which move with the fluid The technique is called the marker and cell method Some examples of the application of this method are presented All non‐linear effects are completely included, and the transient aspects can be computed for as much elapsed time as desired

5,841 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method is extended to deal with free surface incompressible flows, and examples are given of its application to a breaking dam, a bore, the simulation of a wave maker, and the propagation of waves towards a beach.

Abstract: The SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) method is extended to deal with free surface incompressible flows. The method is easy to use, and examples will be given of its application to a breaking dam, a bore, the simulation of a wave maker, and the propagation of waves towards a beach. Arbitrary moving boundaries can be included by modelling the boundaries by particles which repel the fluid particles. The method is explicit, and the time steps are therefore much shorter than required by other less flexible methods, but it is robust and easy to program.

2,575 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, the stability of steady nonlinear waves on the surface of an infinitely deep fluid with a free surface was studied. And the authors considered the problem of stability of surface waves as part of the more general problem of nonlinear wave in media with dispersion.

Abstract: We study the stability of steady nonlinear waves on the surface of an infinitely deep fluid [1, 2]. In section 1, the equations of hydrodynamics for an ideal fluid with a free surface are transformed to canonical variables: the shape of the surface η(r, t) and the hydrodynamic potential ψ(r, t) at the surface are expressed in terms of these variables. By introducing canonical variables, we can consider the problem of the stability of surface waves as part of the more general problem of nonlinear waves in media with dispersion [3,4]. The resuits of the rest of the paper are also easily applicable to the general case.

2,177 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the formation of droplet clouds or sprays that subsequently burn in combustion chambers, which is caused by interfacial instabilities, such as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

Abstract: The numerical simulation of flows with interfaces and free-surface flows is a vast topic, with applications to domains as varied as environment, geophysics, engineering, and fundamental physics. In engineering, as well as in other disciplines, the study of liquid-gas interfaces is important in combustion problems with liquid and gas reagents. The formation of droplet clouds or sprays that subsequently burn in combustion chambers originates in interfacial instabilities, such as the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. What can numerical simulations do to improve our understanding of these phenomena? The limitations of numerical techniques make it impossible to consider more than a few droplets or bubbles. They also force us to stay at low Reynolds or Weber numbers, which prevent us from finding a direct solution to the breakup problem. However, these methods are potentially important. First, the continuous improvement of computational power (or, what amounts to the same, the drop in megaflop price) continuously extends the range of affordable problems. Second, and more importantly, the phenomena we consider often happen on scales of space and time where experimental visualization is difficult or impossible. In such cases, numerical simulation may be a useful prod to the intuition of the physicist, the engineer, or the mathematician. A typical example of interfacial flow is the collision between two liquid droplets. Finding the flow involves the study not only of hydrodynamic fields in the air and water phases but also of the air-water interface. This latter part

1,770 citations

••

[...]

Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that if contact is made with a metal, the difference in work function between metal semi-conductor is compensated by surface states charge, rather than by a space charge as is independent of the metal.

Abstract: Localized states (Tamm levels), having energies distributed in the “forbidden” range between the filled band and the conduction band, may exist at the surface of a semi-conductor. A condition of no net charge on the surface atoms may correspond to a partial filling of these states. If the density of surface levels is sufficiently high, there will be an appreciable double layer at the free surface of a semi-conductor formed from a net charge from electrons in surface states and a space charge of opposite sign, similar to that at a rectifying junction, extending into the semi-conductor. This double layer tends to make the work function independent of the height of the level in the interior (which in turn depends on impurity content). If contact is made with a metal, the difference in work function between metal semi-conductor is compensated by surface states charge, rather than by a space charge as is independent of the metal. Rectification characteristics are then independent of the metal. These ideas are used to explain results of Meyerhof and others on the relation between contact potential differences and rectification.

1,591 citations