Topic

# Frequency band

About: Frequency band is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 35526 publications have been published within this topic receiving 314551 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new type of metallic structure has been developed that is characterized by having high surface impedance, which is analogous to a corrugated metal surface in which the corrugations have been folded up into lumped-circuit elements and distributed in a two-dimensional lattice.

Abstract: A new type of metallic electromagnetic structure has been developed that is characterized by having high surface impedance. Although it is made of continuous metal, and conducts dc currents, it does not conduct ac currents within a forbidden frequency band. Unlike normal conductors, this new surface does not support propagating surface waves, and its image currents are not phase reversed. The geometry is analogous to a corrugated metal surface in which the corrugations have been folded up into lumped-circuit elements, and distributed in a two-dimensional lattice. The surface can be described using solid-state band theory concepts, even though the periodicity is much less than the free-space wavelength. This unique material is applicable to a variety of electromagnetic problems, including new kinds of low-profile antennas.

4,264 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a method is presented for determining the complex permittivity and permeability of linear materials in the frequency domain by a single time-domain measurement; typically, the frequency band extends from VHF through X band.

Abstract: In this paper a method is presented for determining the complex permittivity and permeability of linear materials in the frequency domain by a single time-domain measurement; typically, the frequency band extends from VHF through X band. The technique described involves placing an unknown sample in a microwave TEM-mode fixture and exciting the sample with a subnanosecond baseband pulse. The fixture is used to facilitate the measurement of the forward- and back-scattered energy, s21(t) and s11(t), respectively. It is shown in this paper that the forward- and back-scattered time-domain "signatures" are uniquely related to the intrinsic properties of the materials, namely, e* and ?*. By appropriately interpreting s21(t) and s11(t), one is able to determine the real and imaginary parts of ? and ? as a function of frequency. Experimental results are presented describing several familiar materials.

2,557 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors apply the theory developed in the preceding paper to a number of questions about timelimited and bandlimited signals, and find the signals which do the best job of simultaneous time and frequency concentration.

Abstract: The theory developed in the preceding paper1 is applied to a number of questions about timelimited and bandlimited signals. In particular, if a finite-energy signal is given, the possible proportions of its energy in a finite time interval and a finite frequency band are found, as well as the signals which do the best job of simultaneous time and frequency concentration.

2,498 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the photonic band gap structures, those three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures that are to photon waves as semiconductor crystals are to electron waves, are discussed.

Abstract: The analogy between electromagnetic wave propagation in multidimensionally periodic structures and electron-wave propagation in real crystals has proven to be a fruitful one. Initial efforts were motivated by the prospect of a photonic band gap. a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden irrespective of the propagation direction in space. Today many new ideas and applications are being pursued in two and three dimensions and in metallic, dielectric, and acoustic structures. We review the early motivations for this research, which were derived from the need for a photonic band gap in quantum optics. This need led to a series of experimental and theoretical searches for the elusive photonic band-gap structures, those three-dimensionally periodic dielectric structures that are to photon waves as semiconductor crystals are to electron waves. We describe how the photonic semiconductor can be doped, producing tiny electromagnetic cavities. Finally, we summarize some of the anticipated implications of photonic band structure for quantum electronics and for other areas of physics and electrical engineering.

1,352 citations

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TL;DR: A principle of orthogonal multiplexing for transmitting a number of data messages simultaneously through a linear band-limited transmission medium at a maximum data rate without interchannel and intersymbol interferences is presented.

Abstract: This paper presents a principle of orthogonal multiplexing for transmitting a number of data messages simultaneously through a linear band-limited transmission medium at a maximum data rate without interchannel and intersymbol interferences. A general method is given for synthesizing an infinite number of classes of band-limited orthogonal time functions in a limited frequency band. Stated in practical terms, the method permits the synthesis of a large class of practical transmitting filter characteristics for an arbitrarily given amplitude characteristic of the transmission medium. Rectangular-shaped ideal filters are not required. The synthesis procedure is convenient. Furthermore, the amplitude and the phase characteristics of the transmitting filters can be synthesized independently. Adaptive correlation reception can be used for data processing, since the received signals remain orthogonal no matter what the phase distortion is in the transmission medium. The system provides the same signal distance protection against channel noises as if the signals of each channel were transmitted through an independent medium and intersymbol interference in each channel were eliminated by reducing data rate.

1,340 citations