Topic

# Frequency drift

About: Frequency drift is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5054 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 56191 citation(s). The topic is also known as: chirp rate.

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TL;DR: Two circuits for use to control the frequency of a microwave oscillator by an external high Q cavity are described, and a technique by which the frequency‐stabilization systems could be used to investigate the structure of microwave absorption spectra is suggested.

Abstract: Two circuits for use to control the frequency of a microwave oscillator by an external high Q cavity are described. One of the circuits uses a microwave equivalent of the frequency discriminator, in conjunction with a d.c. amplifier. The other uses the cavity in a special circuit that provides an intermediate‐frequency signal that is a measure of the difference between the frequencies of the oscillator and cavity. This allows the use of an intermediate‐frequency amplifier. The resulting stability of the oscillators is such that audible beat frequencies can be produced between two oscillators at 10,000 Mc/sec. The resultant signal can be frequency modulated at audiofrequencies, with stabilization acting throughout the modulation cycle. A technique by which the frequency‐stabilization systems could be used to investigate, with high resolution, the structure of microwave absorption spectra is suggested.

398 citations

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Hewlett-Packard

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the effects of finite observation time on the frequency and phase stability of a servo-controlled oscillator with respect to a given quartz oscillator and an atomic reference are analyzed.

Abstract: Precision quartz oscillators have three main sources of noise contributing to frequency fluctuations: thermal noise in the oscillator, additive noise contributed by auxiliary circuitry such as AGC, etc., and fluctuations in the quartz frequency itself as well as in the reactive elements associated with the crystal, leading to an f-1type of power spectral density in frequency fluctuations. Masers are influenced by the first two types of noise, and probably also by the third. The influence of these sources of noise on frequency fluctuation vs. averaging time measurements is discussed. The f-1-spectral density leads to results that depend on the length of time over which the measurements are made. An analysis of the effects of finite observation time is given. The characteristics of both passive and active atomic standards using a servo-controlled oscillator are discussed. The choice of servo time constant influences the frequency fluctuations observed as a function of averaging time and should be chosen for best performance with a given quartz oscillator and atomic reference. The conventional methods of handling random signals, i.e., variances, autocorrelation, and spectral densities, are applied to the special case of frequency and phase fluctuations in oscillators, in order to obtain meaningful criteria for specifying oscillator frequency stability. The interrelations between these specifications are developed in the course of the paper.

385 citations

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TL;DR: A general theory that allows the accurate linear and nonlinear analysis of any crystal oscillator circuit is presented and a 2-MHz CMOS oscillator which uses amplitude stabilization to minimize power consumption and to eliminate the effects of nonlinearities on frequency is described.

Abstract: A general theory that allows the accurate linear and nonlinear analysis of any crystal oscillator circuit is presented. It is based on the high Q of the resonator and on a very few nonlimiting assumptions. The special case of the three-point oscillator, that includes Peirce and one-pin circuits, is analyzed in more detail. A clear insight into the linear behavior, including the effect of losses, is obtained by means of the circular locus of the circuit impedance. A basic condition for oscillation and simple analytic expressions are derived in the lossless case for frequency pulling, critical transconductance, and start-up time constant. The effects of nonlinearities on amplitude and on frequency stability are analyzed. As an application, a 2-MHz CMOS oscillator which uses amplitude stabilization to minimize power consumption and to eliminate the effects of nonlinearities on frequency is described. The chip, implemented in a 3- mu m p-well low-voltage process, includes a three-stage frequency divider and consumes 0.9 mu A at 1.5 V. The measured frequency stability is 0.05 p.p.m./V in the range 1.1-5 V of supply voltage. Temperature effect on the circuit itself is less than 0.1 p.p.m. from -10 to +60 degrees C. >

372 citations

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TL;DR: This work demonstrates a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than −60 dBc Hz−1 at 10GHz, −90 dBcHz+1 at 100MHz, and −170dBC Frequency Stability, at the level of 10−10 at 1–100s integration time.

Abstract: Femtosecond laser-based generation of radio frequency signals has produced astonishing improvements in achievable spectral purity, one of the basic features characterizing the performance of an radio frequency oscillator. Kerr frequency combs hold promise for transforming these lab-scale oscillators to chip-scale level. In this work we demonstrate a miniature 10 GHz radio frequency photonic oscillator characterized with phase noise better than -60 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 Hz, -90 dBc Hz(-1) at 100 Hz and -170 dBc Hz(-1) at 10 MHz. The frequency stability of this device, as represented by Allan deviation measurements, is at the level of 10(-10) at 1-100 s integration time-orders of magnitude better than existing radio frequency photonic devices of similar size, weight and power consumption.

372 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a description of the key properties of a MEMS resonator that determine the overall performance of the MEMS oscillator is given and an overview is given of methods that have been demonstrated to improve the frequency stability.

Abstract: MEMS-based oscillators are an emerging class of highly miniaturized, batch manufacturable timing devices that can rival the electrical performance of well-established quartz-based oscillators. In this review, a description is given of the key properties of a MEMS resonator that determine the overall performance of a MEMS oscillator. Piezoelectric, capacitive and active resonator transduction methods are compared and their impact on oscillator noise and power dissipation is explained. An overview is given of the performance of MEMS resonators and MEMS-based oscillators that have been demonstrated to date. Mechanisms that affect the frequency stability of the resonator, such as temperature-induced frequency drift, are explained and an overview is given of methods that have been demonstrated to improve the frequency stability. The aforementioned performance indicators of MEMS-based oscillators are benchmarked against established quartz and CMOS technologies.

351 citations