Topic

# Frequency response

About: Frequency response is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 25705 publications have been published within this topic receiving 332249 citations.

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TL;DR: Three experimental techniques based on automatic swept-frequency network and impedance analysers were used to measure the dielectric properties of tissue in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz, demonstrating that good agreement was achieved between measurements using the three pieces of equipment.

Abstract: Three experimental techniques based on automatic swept-frequency network and impedance analysers were used to measure the dielectric properties of tissue in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz. The technique used in conjunction with the impedance analyser is described. Results are given for a number of human and animal tissues, at body temperature, across the frequency range, demonstrating that good agreement was achieved between measurements using the three pieces of equipment. Moreover, the measured values fall well within the body of corresponding literature data.

3,996 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: A computer system is described in which isolated words, spoken by a designated talker, are recognized through calculation of a minimum prediction residual through optimally registering the reference LPC onto the input autocorrelation coefficients using the dynamic programming algorithm.

Abstract: A computer system is described in which isolated words, spoken by a designated talker, are recognized through calculation of a minimum prediction residual. A reference pattern for each word to be recognized is stored as a time pattern of linear prediction coefficients (LPC). The total log prediction residual of an input signal is minimized by optimally registering the reference LPC onto the input autocorrelation coefficients using the dynamic programming algorithm (DP). The input signal is recognized as the reference word which produces the minimum prediction residual. A sequential decision procedure is used to reduce the amount of computation in DP. A frequency normalization with respect to the long-time spectral distribution is used to reduce effects of variations in the frequency response of telephone connections. The system has been implemented on a DDP-516 computer for the 200-word recognition experiment. The recognition rate for a designated male talker is 97.3 percent for telephone input, and the recognition time is about 22 times real time.

1,588 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: A frequencydependent quadrature model is proposed whose parameters are obtainable from single-tone measurements and is shown to fit measured data very well.

Abstract: Simple two-parameter formulas are presented for the functions involved in the amplitude-phase and the quadrature nonlinear models of a TWT amplifier, and are shown to fit measured data very well. Also, a closed-form expression is derived for the output signal of a TWT amplifier excited by two phase-modulated carriers, and an expression containing a single integral is given when more than two such earriers are involved. Finally, a frequencydependent quadrature model is proposed whose parameters are obtainable from single-tone measurements.

1,442 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the frequency response of eddy correlation systems due to sensor response, path-length averaging, sensor separation and signal processing is discussed and illustrated by application to the Institute of Hydrology's "Hydra" EDD correlation system, showing that flux loss from such a system is typically 5 to 10% for sensible and latent heat flux, but can be much larger for momentum flux and variance measurements.

Abstract: Simplified expressions describing the frequency response of eddy correlation systems due to sensor response, path-length averaging, sensor separation and signal processing are presented. A routine procedure for estimating and correcting for the frequency response loss in flux and variance measurements is discussed and illustrated by application to the Institute of Hydrology's ‘Hydra’ eddy correlation system. The results show that flux loss from such a system is typically 5 to 10% for sensible and latent heat flux, but can be much larger for momentum flux and variance measurements in certain conditions. A microcomputer program is included which, with little modification, can be used for estimating flux loss from other eddy correlation systems with different or additional sensors.

1,204 citations

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Virginia Tech

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, a closed-form analytical solution for a unimorph cantilever under base excitation based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam assumptions is presented, and the performance of the bimorph device is analyzed extensively for the short circuit and open circuit resonance frequency excitations.

Abstract: Piezoelectric transduction has received great attention for vibration-to-electric energy conversion over the last five years. A typical piezoelectric energy harvester is a unimorph or a bimorph cantilever located on a vibrating host structure, to generate electrical energy from base excitations. Several authors have investigated modeling of cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters under base excitation. The existing mathematical modeling approaches range from elementary single-degree-of-freedom models to approximate distributed parameter solutions in the sense of Rayleigh–Ritz discretization as well as analytical solution attempts with certain simplifications. Recently, the authors have presented the closed-form analytical solution for a unimorph cantilever under base excitation based on the Euler–Bernoulli beam assumptions. In this paper, the analytical solution is applied to bimorph cantilever configurations with series and parallel connections of piezoceramic layers. The base excitation is assumed to be translation in the transverse direction with a superimposed small rotation. The closed-form steady state response expressions are obtained for harmonic excitations at arbitrary frequencies, which are then reduced to simple but accurate single-mode expressions for modal excitations. The electromechanical frequency response functions (FRFs) that relate the voltage output and vibration response to translational and rotational base accelerations are identified from the multi-mode and single-mode solutions. Experimental validation of the single-mode coupled voltage output and vibration response expressions is presented for a bimorph cantilever with a tip mass. It is observed that the closed-form single-mode FRFs obtained from the analytical solution can successfully predict the coupled system dynamics for a wide range of electrical load resistance. The performance of the bimorph device is analyzed extensively for the short circuit and open circuit resonance frequency excitations and the accuracy of the model is shown in all cases.

1,187 citations