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# Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric

About: Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4113 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 87752 citation(s). The topic is also known as: FLRW metric.

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TL;DR: In this article, the structure and cosmological properties of a number of modified theories, including traditional F (R ) and Hořava-Lifshitz F ( R ) gravity, scalar-tensor theory, string-inspired and Gauss-Bonnet theory, non-local gravity, nonminimally coupled models, and power-counting renormalizable covariant gravity are discussed.

Abstract: The classical generalization of general relativity is considered as the gravitational alternative for a unified description of the early-time inflation with late-time cosmic acceleration. The structure and cosmological properties of a number of modified theories, including traditional F ( R ) and Hořava–Lifshitz F ( R ) gravity, scalar-tensor theory, string-inspired and Gauss–Bonnet theory, non-local gravity, non-minimally coupled models, and power-counting renormalizable covariant gravity are discussed. Different representations of and relations between such theories are investigated. It is shown that some versions of the above theories may be consistent with local tests and may provide a qualitatively reasonable unified description of inflation with the dark energy epoch. The cosmological reconstruction of different modified gravities is provided in great detail. It is demonstrated that eventually any given universe evolution may be reconstructed for the theories under consideration, and the explicit reconstruction is applied to an accelerating spatially flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) universe. Special attention is paid to Lagrange multiplier constrained and conventional F ( R ) gravities, for latter F ( R ) theory, the effective Λ CDM era and phantom divide crossing acceleration are obtained. The occurrences of the Big Rip and other finite-time future singularities in modified gravity are reviewed along with their solutions via the addition of higher-derivative gravitational invariants.

3,009 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the structure and cosmological properties of modified theories, including traditional $F(R)$ and Hořava-Lifshitz$ gravity, scalar-tensor theory, string-inspired and Gauss-Bonnet theory, non-local gravity, nonminimally coupled models, and power-counting renormalizable covariant gravity are discussed.

Abstract: Classical generalization of general relativity is considered as gravitational alternative for unified description of the early-time inflation with late-time cosmic acceleration. The structure and cosmological properties of number of modified theories, including traditional $F(R)$ and Hořava-Lifshitz $F(R)$ gravity, scalar-tensor theory, string-inspired and Gauss-Bonnet theory, non-local gravity, non-minimally coupled models, and power-counting renormalizable covariant gravity are discussed. Different representations and relations between such theories are investigated. It is shown that some versions of above theories may be consistent with local tests and may provide qualitatively reasonable unified description of inflation with dark energy epoch. The cosmological reconstruction of different modified gravities is made in great detail. It is demonstrated that eventually any given universe evolution may be reconstructed for the theories under consideration: the explicit reconstruction is applied to accelerating spatially-flat FRW universe. Special attention is paid to Lagrange multiplier constrained and conventional $F(R)$ gravities, for last theory the effective $\Lambda$CDM era and phantom-divide crossing acceleration are obtained. The occurrence of Big Rip and other finite-time future singularities in modified gravity is reviewed as well as its curing via the addition of higher-derivative gravitational invariants.

2,031 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider a FRW cosmological model with an exotic fluid known as Chaplygin gas and show that the resulting evolution of the universe is not in disagreement with the current observation of cosmic acceleration.

Abstract: We consider a FRW cosmological model with an exotic fluid known as Chaplygin gas. We show that the resulting evolution of the universe is not in disagreement with the current observation of cosmic acceleration. The model predict an increasing value for the effective cosmological constant.

1,923 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the cosmological constant problem is examined in the context of both astronomy and physics with reference to expansion dynamics, the age of the universe, distance measures, comoving density of objects, growth of linear perturbations, and gravitational lens probabilities.

Abstract: The cosmological constant problem is examined in the context of both astronomy and physics. Effects of a nonzero cosmological constant are discussed with reference to expansion dynamics, the age of the universe, distance measures, comoving density of objects, growth of linear perturbations, and gravitational lens probabilities. The observational status of the cosmological constant is reviewed, with attention given to the existence of high-redshift objects, age derivation from globular clusters and cosmic nuclear data, dynamical tests of Omega sub Lambda, quasar absorption line statistics, gravitational lensing, and astrophysics of distant objects. Finally, possible solutions to the physicist's cosmological constant problem are examined.

1,571 citations

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TL;DR: The linear perturbation theory of spatially homogeneous and isotropic universes is reviewed and reformulated extensively in this article, with special attention paid to the geometrical meaning of the perturbations.

Abstract: The linear perturbation theory of spatially homogeneous and isotropic universes is reviewed and reformulated extensively. In the first half of the article, a gauge-invariant formulation of the theory is carried out with special attention paid to the geometrical meaning of the perturbation. In the second half of the article, the application of the theory to some important cosmological models is discussed.

1,377 citations