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Fuel injection

About: Fuel injection is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 43871 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 341154 citation(s). The topic is also known as: fuel injection system.
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08 Feb 2000-
Abstract: The development of four-stroke, spark-ignition engines that are designed to inject gasoline directly into the combustion chamber is an important worldwide initiative of the automotive industry. The thermodynamic potential of such engines for significantly enhanced fuel economy, transient response and cold-start hydrocarbon emission levels has led to a large number of research and development projects that have the goal of understanding, developing and optimizing gasoline direct-injection (GDI) combustion systems. The processes of fuel injection, spray atomization and vaporization, charge cooling, mixture preparation and the control of in-cylinder air motion are all being actively researched, and this work is reviewed in detail and analyzed. The new technologies such as high-pressure, common-rail, gasoline injection systems and swirl-atomizing gasoline fuel injectors are discussed in detail, as these technologies, along with computer control capabilities, have enabled the current new examination of an old objective; the direct-injection, stratified-charge (DISC), gasoline engine. The prior work on DISC engines that is relevant to current GDI engine development is also reviewed and discussed. The fuel economy and emission data for actual engine configurations are of significant importance to engine researchers and developers. These data have been obtained and assembled for all of the available GDI literature, and are reviewed and discussed in detail. The types of GDI engines are arranged in four classifications of decreasing complexity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each class are noted and explained. Emphasis is placed upon consensus trends and conclusions that are evident when taken as a whole. Thus the GDI researcher is informed regarding the degree to which engine volumetric efficiency and compression ratio can be increased under optimized conditions, and as to the extent to which unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC), NOx and particulate emissions can be minimized for specific combustion strategies. The critical area of GDI fuel injector deposits and the associated effect on spray geometry and engine performance degradation are reviewed, and important system guidelines for minimizing deposition rates and deposit effects are presented. The capabilities and limitations of emission control techniques and aftertreatment hardware are reviewed in depth, and areas of consensus on attaining European, Japanese and North American emission standards are compiled and discussed. All known research, prototype and production GDI engines worldwide are reviewed as to performance, emissions and fuel economy advantages, and for areas requiring further development. The engine schematics, control diagrams and specifications are compiled, and the emission control strategies are illustrated and discussed. The influence of lean-NOx catalysts on the development of late-injection, stratified-charge GDI engines is reviewed, and the relative merits of lean-burn, homogeneous, direct-injection engines as an option requiring less control complexity are analyzed. All current information in the literature is used as the basis for discussing the future development of automotive GDI engines.

776 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2008-Fuel
Abstract: This paper reviews the properties and application of di-methyl ether (DME) as a candidate fuel for compression-ignition engines. DME is produced by the conversion of various feedstock such as natural gas, coal, oil residues and bio-mass. To determine the technical feasibility of DME, the review compares its key properties with those of diesel fuel that are relevant to this application. DME’s diesel engine-compatible properties are its high cetane number and low auto-ignition temperature. In addition, its simple chemical structure and high oxygen content result in soot-free combustion in engines. Fuel injection of DME can be achieved through both conventional mechanical and current common-rail systems but requires slight modification of the standard system to prevent corrosion and overcome low lubricity. The spray characteristics of DME enable its application to compression-ignition engines despite some differences in its properties such as easier evaporation and lower density. Overall, the low particulate matter production of DME provides adequate justification for its consideration as a candidate fuel in compression-ignition engines. Recent research and development shows comparable output performance to a diesel fuel led engine but with lower particulate emissions. NOx emissions from DME-fuelled engines can meet future regulations with high exhaust gas recirculation in combination with a lean NOx trap. Although more development work has focused on medium or heavy-duty engines, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the technical feasibility of DME as a candidate fuel for environmentally-friendly compression-ignition engines independent of size or application.

761 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Measurements of soot distributions in fuel jets injected into high-temperature, high-pressure diesel-like operating conditions were made in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel A laser-extinction technique was used to make quantitative measurements of path-length-averaged soot volume fraction Flame luminosity and planar laser-induced incandescence imaging were used to visualize the sooting region of the fuel jet Flame lift-off lengths were also measured and used in the interpretation and analysis of the soot measurements Fuel was injected with a common-rail diesel fuel injector equipped with a single 100-μm-diameter orifice The fuel used was #2 diesel fuel The matrix of experimental conditions included ambient gas temperatures from 850 to 1300 K, ambient gas densities from 73 to 300 kg/m3, and injection pressures from 43 to 184 MPa The results show that peak soot level in a fuel jet increases with increasing ambient gas temperature, with the increase scaling linearly with temperature However, near the tip of the flame, the soot levels decrease with increasing ambient temperature, indicating significantly higher soot oxidation rates in the flame-tip region at higher temperatures The results also show that the peak soot level in a fuel jet increases with increasing ambient gas density and decreasing injection pressure The increase with increasing ambient density is nonlinear with respect to density The increase with decreasing injection pressure is linear with decreasing injection velocity (or the square root of the pressure drop across the injector orifice) Overall, the trends observed in diesel fuel jet soot closely correlate with the cross-sectional average equivalence ratio at the lift-off length, with soot levels decreasing as the equivalence ratio decreases (ie, as more air entrainment and mixing of fuel and air occur upstream of the lift-off length)

428 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1984-SAE transactions
Abstract: In analyzing the processes inside the cylinder of an internal combustion engine, the principal diagnostic at the experimenter's disposal is a measured time history of the cylinder pressure. This paper develops, tests, and applies a heat release analysis procedure that maintains simplicity while including the effects of heat transfer, crevice flows and fuel injection. The heat release model uses a one zone description of the cylinder contents with thermodynamic properties represented by a linear approximation. Applications of the analysis to a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine, a special square cross-section visualization spark-ignition engine, and a direct-injection stratified charge engine are presented.

426 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Gopichandra Surnilla

70 papers, 1K citations

Avinash Kumar Agarwal

35 papers, 1.3K citations

Friedrich Boecking

34 papers, 107 citations

Motoyuki Abe

30 papers, 192 citations

Miyamoto Katsuhiko

30 papers, 134 citations