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Fuel oil

About: Fuel oil is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 18105 publications have been published within this topic receiving 161181 citations. The topic is also known as: Bunker Fuel & Heavy Oil.

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01 Dec 1980
TL;DR: In this paper, Asphaltene used the data of the Data Structural Group Analysis (DSGAA) to determine the effect of various factors on the stability or instability of the Crude Oil System.
Abstract: PART I: HISTORY, OCCURRENCE, AND RECOVERY History and Terminology Historical Perspectives Modern Perspectives Definitions and Terminology Native Materials Manufactured Materials Derived Materials Oil Prices Classification Classification Systems Miscellaneous Systems Reservoir Classification Origin and Occurrence Origin Occurrence Kerogen Properties Composition Classification Isolation Methods for Probing Kerogen Structure Structural Models Kerogen Maturation Exploration, Recovery, and Transportation Exploration Drilling Operations Well Completion Recovery Products and Product Quality Transportation New! Recovery of Heavy Oil and Tar Sand Bitumen Oil Mining Nonmining Methods PART II: COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES Chemical Composition Ultimate (Elemental) Composition Chemical Components Chemical Composition by Distillation Fractional Composition Distillation Solvent Treatment Adsorption Chemical Methods Use of the Data Petroleum Analysis Petroleum Assay Physical Properties Thermal Properties Electrical Properties Optical Properties Spectroscopic Methods Chromatographic Methods Molecular Weight Use of the Data Structural Group Analysis Methods for Structural Group Analysis Miscellaneous Methods Asphaltene Constituents Separation Composition Molecular Weight Reactions Solubility Parameter Structural Aspects Structure of Petroleum Molecular Species in Petroleum Chemical and Physical Structure of Petroleum Stability or Instability of the Crude Oil System Effects on Recovery and Refining Completely Revised! Instability and Incompatibility Instability and Incompatibility in Petroleum Factors Influencing Instability and Incompatibility Methods for Determining Instability and Incompatibility Effect of Asphaltene Constituents PART III: REFINING New! Introduction to Refining Processes Dewatering and Desalting Early Processes Distillation Thermal Methods Catalytic Methods Hydroprocesses Reforming Isomerization Alkylation Processes Polymerization Processes Solvent Process Refining Heavy Feedstocks Petroleum Products Petrochemicals Completely Revised! Refining Chemistry Cracking Hydrogenation Isomerization Alkylation Polymerization Process Chemistry Completely Revised! Distillation Pretreatment Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Equipment Other Processes Completely Revised! Thermal Cracking Early Processes Commercial Processes Catalytic Cracking Early Processes Commercial Processes Catalysts Process Parameters New! Deasphalting and Dewaxing Processes Commercial Processes Dewaxing Processes Completely Revised! Hydrotreating and Desulfurization Process Parameters and Reactors Commercial Processes Catalysts Biodesulfurization Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Polishing Completely Revised! Hydrocracking Commercial Processes Catalysts Completely Revised! Hydrogen Production Processes Requiring Hydrogen Feedstocks Process Chemistry Commercial Processes Catalysts Hydrogen Purification Hydrogen Management Product Improvement Reforming Isomerization Alkylation Polymerization Catalysts Product Treating Commercial Processes Gas Processing Gas Cleaning Water Removal Liquids Removal Nitrogen Removal Acid Gas Removal Enrichment Fractionation Claus Process Completely Revised! Products Gaseous Fuels Gasoline Solvents (Naphtha) Kerosene Fuel Oil Lubricating Oil Other Oil Products Grease Wax Asphalt Coke Sulfonic Acids Acid Sludge Product Blending Petrochemicals Chemicals from Paraffins Chemicals from Olefins Chemicals from Aromatics Chemicals from Acetylene Chemicals from Natural Gas Inorganic Petrochemicals Synthesis Gas PART IV: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES New! Environmental Aspects of Refining Definitions Environmental Regulations Process Analysis Epilog New! Refinery Wastes Process Wastes Types of Waste Waste Toxicity Refinery Outlook Management of Refinery Waste New! Environmental Analysis Petroleum and Petroleum Products Leachability and Toxicity Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons Petroleum Group Analysis Petroleum Fractions Assessment of the Methods Conversion Factors Glossary Index *Each Chapter contains Introduction and Reference sections

2,226 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Particle surface area, number of ultrafine particles, bioavailable transition metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and other particle-bound organic compounds are suspected to be more important than particle mass in determining the effects of air pollution.
Abstract: Particulate matter (PM) emissions from stationary combustion sources burning coal, fuel oil, biomass, and waste, and PM from internal combustion (IC) engines burning gasoline and diesel, are a significant source of primary particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in urban areas. Combustion-generated particles are generally smaller than geologically produced dust and have unique chemical composition and morphology. The fundamental processes affecting formation of combustion PM and the emission characteristics of important applications are reviewed. Particles containing transition metals, ultrafine particles, and soot are emphasized because these types of particles have been studied extensively, and their emissions are controlled by the fuel composition and the oxidant-tem-perature-mixing history from the flame to the stack. There is a need for better integration of the combustion, air pollution control, atmospheric chemistry, and inhalation health research communities. Epidemiology has demonstrated t...

1,018 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2007-Fuel
TL;DR: In this paper, different technologies for residua processing: thermal, catalytic fixed and ebullated types of hydroconversion are reviewed and discussed, and a possibility of combining the advantages of these technologies together with suitable catalyst with enhanced and controlled cracking activity is also analyzed.
Abstract: The term hydroconversion is used to signify processes by which molecules in petroleum feedstocks are split or saturated with hydrogen gas while tumbling boiling ranges and impurities content from petroleum fractions. Hydroprocessing is a broad term that includes hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and hydrorefining. To meet the gradual changes in petroleum stipulate, in particular a reduced demand for heavy fuel oil, advanced technologies for residue hydroprocessing are now extremely necessary. A refining process is needed for treating heavy petroleum fractions (atmospheric or vacuum oil residue) in the presence of catalysts and hydrogen at high pressure. In this article the different technologies for residua processing: thermal, catalytic fixed and ebullated types of hydroconversion are reviewed and discussed. A possibility of combining the advantages of these technologies together with suitable catalyst with enhanced and controlled cracking activity is also analyzed.

883 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. The effects of vegetable oil fuels and their methyl esters (raw sunflower oil, raw cottonseed oil, raw soybean oil and their methyl esters, refined corn oil, distilled opium poppy oil and refined rapeseed oil) on a direct injected, four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was investigated in this paper. The results show that from the performance viewpoint, both vegetable oils and their esters are promising alternatives as fuel for diesel engines. Because of their high viscosity, drying with time and thickening in cold conditions, vegetable oil fuels still have problems, such as flow, atomization and heavy particulate emissions.

749 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, physical and chemical characteristics of bio-oils relevant to fuel applications as well as some low-cost methods for improvement of these properties are discussed, and the authors also provide bio-oil specifications proposed by some industrial users.
Abstract: Biomass pyrolysis oils have potential to be used as a fuel oil substitute. Combustion tests have shown that the oils burn efficiently in standard or slightly modified boilers and engines with rates similar to those for commercial fuels. However, these tests also identified several challenges in bio-oils applications resulting from their properties. The oils have heating values of only 40−50% of that for hydrocarbon fuels. They have a high water content that is detrimental for ignition. Organic acids in the oils are corrosive to common construction materials. Solids (char) can block injectors or erode turbine blades. Over time, reactivity of some components in the oils leads to formation of larger molecules that results in high viscosity and in slower combustion. This paper discusses physical and chemical characteristics of bio-oils relevant to fuel applications as well as some low-cost methods for improvement of these properties. It also provides bio-oil specifications proposed by some industrial users an...

731 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years