About: Fullerene is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12723 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 359173 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a truncated icosahedron, a polygon with 60 vertices and 32 faces, 12 of which are pentagonal and 20 hexagonal.
Abstract: During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells1, graphite has been vaporized by laser irradiation, producing a remarkably stable cluster consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Concerning the question of what kind of 60-carbon atom structure might give rise to a superstable species, we suggest a truncated icosahedron, a polygon with 60 vertices and 32 faces, 12 of which are pentagonal and 20 hexagonal. This object is commonly encountered as the football shown in Fig. 1. The C60 molecule which results when a carbon atom is placed at each vertex of this structure has all valences satisfied by two single bonds and one double bond, has many resonance structures, and appears to be aromatic. Before 1985, it was generally accepted that elemental carbon exists in two forms, or allotropes: diamond and graphite. Then, Kroto et al. identified the signature of a new, stable form of carbon that consisted of clusters of 60 atoms. They called this third allotrope of carbon 'buckminsterfullerene', and proposed that it consisted of polyhedral molecules in which the atoms were arrayed at the vertices of a truncated icosahedron. In 1990, the synthesis of large quantities of C60 [see Nature 347, 354–358 (1990)] confirmed this hypothesis.
TL;DR: In this article, a new form of pure, solid carbon has been synthesized consisting of a somewhat disordered hexagonal close packing of soccer-ball-shaped C60 molecules.
Abstract: A new form of pure, solid carbon has been synthesized consisting of a somewhat disordered hexagonal close packing of soccer-ball-shaped C60 molecules. Infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction studies of the molecular packing confirm that the molecules have the anticipated 'fullerene' structure. Mass spectroscopy shows that the C70 molecule is present at levels of a few per cent. The solid-state and molecular properties of C60 and its possible role in interstellar space can now be studied in detail.
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a detailed overview of the properties of Fullerenes and their properties in surface science applications, such as scanning tunnel microscopy, growth and fragmentation studies, and chemical synthesis.
Abstract: Historical Introduction. Carbon Materials. Structure of Fullerenes. Symmetry Considerations. Growth and Fragmentation Studies. Crystalline Structure of Fullerenes. Synthesis of Fullerene Molecules and Solids. Doping of Fullerenes. Structure of Doped Fullerenes and Fullerene Compounds. Fullerene Chemistry. Vibrational Modes. Thermal Properties. Electronic Structure. Optical Properties. Electrical and Thermal Properties. Superconductivity. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. Surface Science Techniques on Fullerenes. Magnetic Properties. Fullerene-Related Tubules and Spherules. Scanning Tunnel Microscopy. Applications.
TL;DR: Because the photoluminescence in the conducting polymer is quenched by interaction with C60, the data imply that charge transfer from the excited state occurs on a picosecond time scale.
Abstract: Evidence for photoinduced electron transfer from the excited state of a conducting polymer onto buckminsterfullerene, C(60), is reported. After photo-excitation of the conjugated polymer with light of energy greater than the pi-pi* gap, an electron transfer to the C(60) molecule is initiated. Photoinduced optical absorption studies demonstrate a different excitation spectrum for the composite as compared to the separate components, consistent with photo-excited charge transfer. A photoinduced electron spin resonance signal exhibits signatures of both the conducting polymer cation and the C(60) anion. Because the photoluminescence in the conducting polymer is quenched by interaction with C(60), the data imply that charge transfer from the excited state occurs on a picosecond time scale. The charge-separated state in composite films is metastable at low temperatures.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a variant of the standard arc-discharge technique for fullerene synthesis under a helium atmosphere, where a carbonaceous deposit formed on one of the graphite rods, consisting of a macroscopic (diameter of about 5 mm) cylinder.
Abstract: INTEREST in carbon fibres1,2 has been stimulated greatly by the recent discovery of hollow graphitic tubules of nanometre dimensions3. There has been much speculation about the properties and potential application of these nanotubes4–8. Theoretical studies predict that their electronic properties will depend on their diameter and degree of helicity4,5. Experimental tests of these ideas has been hampered, however, by the lack of macroscopic quantities of the material. Here we report the synthesis of graphitic nanotubes in gram quantities. We use a variant of the standard arc-discharge technique for fullerene synthesis under a helium atmosphere. Under certain conditions, a carbonaceous deposit forms on one of the graphite rods, consisting of a macroscopic (diameter of about 5 mm) cylinder in which the core comprises pure nanotubes and nanoscale particles in high yield. The purity and yield depend sensitively on the gas pressure in the reaction vessel. Preliminary measurements of the conductivity of the bulk nanotube material indicate a conductivity of about 100 S cm–11.
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