Topic

# Fundamental frequency

About: Fundamental frequency is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8941 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 131583 citation(s).

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TL;DR: In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the stability of periodic wave trains to small disturbances in the form of a pair of side-band modes is presented, where the wave train becomes highly irregular far from its origin, even when the departures from periodicity are scarcely detectable at the start.

Abstract: The phenomenon in question arises when a periodic progressive wave train with fundamental frequency ω is formed on deep water—say by radiation from an oscillating paddle—and there are also present residual wave motions at adjacent side-band frequencies ω(1 ± δ), such as would be generated if the movement of the paddle suffered a slight modulation at low frequency. In consequence of coupling through the non-linear boundary conditions at the free surface, energy is then transferred from the primary motion to the side bands at a rate that, as will be shown herein, can increase exponentially as the interaction proceeds. The result is that the wave train becomes highly irregular far from its origin, even when the departures from periodicity are scarcely detectable at the start.In this paper a theoretical investigation is made into the stability of periodic wave trains to small disturbances in the form of a pair of side-band modes, and Part 2 which will follow is an account of some experimental observations in accord with the present predictions. The main conclusion of the theory is that infinitesimal disturbances of the type considered will undergo unbounded magnification if
\[
0 < \delta \leqslant (\sqrt{2})ka,
\]
where k and a are the fundamental wave-number and amplitude of the perturbed wave train. The asymptotic rate of growth is a maximum for δ = ka.

1,903 citations

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IRCAM

^{1}TL;DR: An algorithm is presented for the estimation of the fundamental frequency (F0) of speech or musical sounds, based on the well-known autocorrelation method with a number of modifications that combine to prevent errors.

Abstract: An algorithm is presented for the estimation of the fundamental frequency (F0) of speech or musical sounds. It is based on the well-known autocorrelation method with a number of modifications that combine to prevent errors. The algorithm has several desirable features. Error rates are about three times lower than the best competing methods, as evaluated over a database of speech recorded together with a laryngograph signal. There is no upper limit on the frequency search range, so the algorithm is suited for high-pitched voices and music. The algorithm is relatively simple and may be implemented efficiently and with low latency, and it involves few parameters that must be tuned. It is based on a signal model (periodic signal) that may be extended in several ways to handle various forms of aperiodicity that occur in particular applications. Finally, interesting parallels may be drawn with models of auditory processing.

1,835 citations

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TL;DR: A set of simple new procedures has been developed to enable the real-time manipulation of speech parameters by using pitch-adaptive spectral analysis combined with a surface reconstruction method in the time–frequency region.

Abstract: A set of simple new procedures has been developed to enable the real-time manipulation of speech parameters. The proposed method uses pitch-adaptive spectral analysis combined with a surface reconstruction method in the time–frequency region. The method also consists of a fundamental frequency (F0) extraction using instantaneous frequency calculation based on a new concept called `fundamentalness'. The proposed procedures preserve the details of time–frequency surfaces while almost perfectly removing fine structures due to signal periodicity. This close-to-perfect elimination of interferences and smooth F0 trajectory allow for over 600% manipulation of such speech parameters as pitch, vocal tract length, and speaking rate, while maintaining high reproductive quality.

1,676 citations

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01 Jun 1946

TL;DR: In this paper, a differential equation is derived which gives the oscillator phase as a function of time, and with the aid of this equation, the transient process of "pull-in" as well as the production of distorted beat note are described in detail.

Abstract: Impression of an external signal upon an oscillator of similar fundamental frequency affects both the instantaneous amplitude and instantaneous frequency. Using the assumption that time constants in the oscillator circuit are small compared to the length of one beat cycle, a differential equation is derived which gives the oscillator phase as a function of time. With the aid of this equation, the transient process of "pull-in" as well as the production of a distorted beat note are described in detail. It is shown that the same equation serves to describe the motion of a pendulum suspended in a viscous fluid inside a rotating container. The whole range of locking phenomena is illustrated with the aid of this simple mechanical model.

1,649 citations

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01 Jan 1993

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an autocorrelation-based method for detecting the acoustic pitch period of a sound, where the position of the maximum of the auto-correlation function of the sound can be found from the relative height of this maximum.

Abstract: We present a straightforward and robust algorithm for periodicity detection, working in the lag (autocorrelation) domain. When it is tested for periodic signals and for signals with additive noise or jitter, it proves to be several orders of magnitude more accurate than the methods commonly used for speech analysis. This makes our method capable of measuring harmonics-to-noise ratios in the lag domain with an accuracy and reliability much greater than that of any of the usual frequency-domain methods. By definition, the best candidate for the acoustic pitch period of a sound can be found from the position of the maximum of the autocorrelation function of the sound, while the degree of periodicity (the harmonics-to-noise ratio) of the sound can be found from the relative height of this maximum. However, sampling and windowing cause problems in accurately determining the position and height of the maximum. These problems have led to inaccurate timedomain and cepstral methods for pitch detection, and to the exclusive use of frequency-domain methods for the determination of the harmonics-to-noise ratio. In this paper, I will tackle these problems. Table 1 shows the specifications of the resulting algorithm for two spectrally maximally different kinds of periodic sounds: a sine wave and a periodic pulse train; other periodic sounds give results between these. Table 1. The accuracy of the algorithm for a sampled sine wave and for a correctly sampled periodic pulse train, as a function of the number of periods that fit in the duration of a Hanning window. These results are valid for pitch frequencies up to 80% of the Nyquist frequency. These results were measured for a sampling frequency of 10 kHz and window lengths of 40 ms (for pitch) and 80 ms (for HNR), but generalize to other sampling frequencies and window lengths (see section 5).

1,112 citations