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Fundus (eye)

About: Fundus (eye) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8265 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 145317 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Fundus Oculi.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0039-6257(05)80092-X
Abstract: A common detection and classification system is needed for epidemiologic studies of age-related maculopathy (ARM). Such a grading scheme for ARM is described in this paper. ARM is defined as a degenerative disorder in persons > or = 50 years of age characterized on grading of color fundus transparencies by the presence of the following abnormalities in the macular area: soft drusen > or = 63 microns, hyperpigmentation and/or hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE and associated neurosensory detachment, (peri)retinal hemorrhages, geographic atrophy of the RPE, or (peri)retinal fibrous scarring in the absence of other retinal (vascular) disorders. Visual acuity is not used to define the presence of ARM. Early ARM is defined as the presence of drusen and RPE pigmentary abnormalities described above; late ARM is similar to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and includes dry AMD (geographic atrophy of the RPE in the absence of neovascular AMD) or neovascular AMD (RPE detachment, hemorrhages, and/or scars as described above). Methods to take and grade fundus transparencies are described.

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Topics: Drusen (61%), Macular degeneration (59%), Age-related maculopathy (57%) ...read more

1,792 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJO.2008.05.032
Abstract: Purpose To describe a method to obtain images of the choroid using conventional spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate choroidal thickness measurements using these images. Design Observational case series. Methods The images were obtained by positioning the SD OCT device close enough to the eye to obtain an inverted representation of the fundus in healthy volunteers who did not have pupillary dilation. Seven sections, each comprised of 100 averaged scans, were obtained within a 5- × 15-degree rectangle centered on the fovea. The choroidal thickness under the fovea in each image was measured by independent observers. Results The choroidal thickness could be evaluated in every subject's choroidal image. The mean choroidal thickness under the fovea was 318 μm in the right eye and 335 μm in the left eye. The choroidal thickness showed a high correlation in both eyes ( r = 0.82; P r = 0.93; left eye, r = 0.97; P Conclusions This method provides detailed, measurable images from the choroid, a structure that heretofore has been difficult to image in clinical practice.

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1,582 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0161-6420(95)31032-9
01 Feb 1995-Ophthalmology
Abstract: Background/ Purpose: To assess the potential of a new diagnostic technique called optical coherence tomography for imaging macular disease. Optical coherence tomography is a novel noninvasive, noncontact imaging modality which produces high depth resolution (10 μm cross-sectional tomographs of ocular tissue. It is analogous to ultrasound, except that optical rather than acoustic reflectivity is measured. Methods: Optical coherence tomography images of the macula were obtained in 51 eyes of 44 patients with selected macular diseases. Imaging is performed in a manner compatible with slit-lamp indirect biomicroscopy so that high-resolution optical tomography may be accomplished simultaneously with normal ophthalmic examination. The time-of-flight delay of light backscattered from different layers in the retina is determined using low-coherence interferometry. Cross-sectional tomographs of the retina profiling optical reflectivity versus distance into the tissue are obtained in 2.5 seconds and with a longitudinal resolution of 10 μm. Results: Correlation of fundus examination and fluorescein angiography with optical coherence tomography tomographs was demonstrated in 12 eyes with the following pathologies: full- and partial-thickness macular hole, epiretinal membrane, macular edema, intraretinal exudate, idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, and detachments of the pigment epithelium and neurosensory retina. Conclusion: Optical coherence tomography is potentially a powerful tool for detecting and monitoring a variety of macular diseases, including macular edema, macular holes, and detachments of the neurosensory retina and pigment epithelium.

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Topics: Optical coherence tomography (70%), Macular hole (65%), Optical tomography (61%) ...read more

1,222 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0161-6420(99)90525-0
Larry D. Hubbard1, William N. King1, Limin X. Clegg2, Ronald Klein1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Dec 1999-Ophthalmology
Abstract: Objective To develop protocols to photograph and evaluate retinal vascular abnormalities in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study; to test reproducibility of the grading system; and to explore the relationship of these microvascular changes with blood pressure. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants Among 4 examination centers, 11,114 participants (48–73 years of age) at their third triennial examination, after excluding persons with diabetes from this analysis. Methods One eye of each participant was photographed by technicians with nonmydriatic fundus cameras. Reading center graders evaluated focal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous (AV) nicking, and retinopathy by examining slides on a light box and measured diameters of all vessels in a zone surrounding the optic disc on enhanced digitized images. To gauge generalized narrowing, vessel diameters were combined into central arteriolar and venular equivalents with formulas adjusting for branching, and the ratio of equivalents (A/V ratio) was calculated. Main outcome measures Retinal vascular abnormalities, mean arteriolar blood pressure (MABP). Results Among 11,114 participants, photographs were obtained of 99%, with quality sufficient to perform retinal evaluations in 81%. In the 9040 subjects with usable photographs, A/V ratio (lower values indicate generalized arteriolar narrowing) ranged from 0.57 to 1.22 (median = 0.84, interquartile range=0.10), focal arteriolar narrowing was found in 7%, AV nicking in 6%, and retinopathy in 4%. Because of attrition of subjects and limitation of methods, prevalence of abnormality was likely underestimated. Controlling for gender, race, age, and smoking status, these retinal changes were associated with higher blood pressure. For every 10-mmHg increase in MABP, A/V ratio decreased by 0.02 unit ( P focal narrowing had MABP approximately 8 mmHg higher than those without ( P Conclusion Protocols have been developed for nonmydriatic fundus photography and for evaluation of retinal vascular abnormalities. Several microvascular changes were significantly associated with higher blood pressure; follow-up will show whether these are predictive of later cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease independently of other known risk factors.

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Topics: Fundus photography (53%), Fundus (eye) (52%), Arteriovenous nicking (50%)

1,029 Citations


Open accessBook
01 Jan 1989-
Abstract: 1. Eyelids 2. Lacrimal Drainage System 3. Orbit 4. Dry Eye Disorders 5. Conjunctiva 6. Cornea 7. Corneal and Refractive Surgery 8. Episclera and Sclera 9. Lens 10. Glaucoma 11. Uveitis 12. Ocular Tumours 13. Retinal Vascular Disease 14. Acquired Macular Disorders 15. Hereditary Fundus Dystrophies 16. Retinal Detachment 17. Vitreous Opacities 18. Strabismus 19. Neuro-ophthalmology 20. Ocular side-effects of systemic medication 21. Trauma Index

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Topics: Retinal detachment (57%), Refractive surgery (56%), Sclera (56%) ...read more

991 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202211
2021576
2020587
2019496
2018409
2017415

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jost B. Jonas

31 papers, 805 citations

Giuseppe Querques

29 papers, 541 citations

Kyoko Ohno-Matsui

28 papers, 961 citations

Hiroshi Fujita

22 papers, 528 citations

Sohan Singh Hayreh

20 papers, 1K citations

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