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Galaxy formation and evolution

About: Galaxy formation and evolution is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15486 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 950531 citation(s). The topic is also known as: galactic evolution & galaxy evolution.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.ASTRO.36.1.189
Robert C. Kennicutt1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Observations of star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies provide vital clues to the physical nature of the Hubble sequence and are key probes of the evolutionary histories of galaxies. The focus of this review is on the broad patterns in the star formation properties of galaxies along the Hubble sequence and their implications for understanding galaxy evolution and the physical processes that drive the evolution. Star formation in the disks and nuclear regions of galaxies are reviewed separately, then discussed within a common interpretive framework. The diagnostic methods used to measure SFRs are also reviewed, and a self-consistent set of SFR calibrations is presented as an aid to workers in the field. One of the most recognizable features of galaxies along the Hubble sequence is the wide range in young stellar content and star formation activity. This variation in stellar content is part of the basis of the Hubble classification itself (Hubble 1926), and understanding its physical nature and origins is fundamental to understanding galaxy evolution in its broader context. This review deals with the global star formation properties of galaxies, the systematics of those properties along the Hubble sequence, and their implications for galactic evolution. I interpret “Hubble sequence” in this context very loosely, to encompass not only morphological type but other properties such as gas content, mass, bar structure, and dynamical environment, which can strongly influence the largescale star formation rate (SFR).

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Topics: Elliptical galaxy (69%), Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (67%), Lenticular galaxy (66%) ...read more

6,640 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE03597
Volker Springel1, Simon D. M. White1, Adrian Jenkins2, Carlos S. Frenk2  +13 moreInstitutions (10)
02 Jun 2005-Nature
Abstract: The cold dark matter model has become the leading theoretical picture for the formation of structure in the Universe. This model, together with the theory of cosmic inflation, makes a clear prediction for the initial conditions for structure formation and predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. Testing this model requires that the precise measurements delivered by galaxy surveys can be compared to robust and equally precise theoretical calculations. Here we present a simulation of the growth of dark matter structure using 2,1603 particles, following them from redshift z = 127 to the present in a cube-shaped region 2.230 billion lightyears on a side. In postprocessing, we also follow the formation and evolution of the galaxies and quasars. We show that baryon-induced features in the initial conditions of the Universe are reflected in distorted form in the low-redshift galaxy distribution, an effect that can be used to constrain the nature of dark energy with future generations of observational surveys of galaxies.

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Topics: Cold dark matter (67%), Galaxy formation and evolution (67%), Dark matter (65%) ...read more

4,572 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/305588
Robert C. Kennicutt1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Measurements of H-alpha, HI, and CO distributions in 61 normal spiral galaxies are combined with published far-infrared and CO observations of 36 infrared-selected starburst galaxies, in order to study the form of the global star formation law, over the full range of gas densities and star formation rates (SFRs) observed in galaxies. The disk-averaged SFRs and gas densities for the combined sample are well represented by a Schmidt law with index N = 1.4+-0.15. The Schmidt law provides a surprisingly tight parametrization of the global star formation law, extending over several orders of magnitude in SFR and gas density. An alternative formulation of the star formation law, in which the SFR is presumed to scale with the ratio of the gas density to the average orbital timescale, also fits the data very well. Both descriptions provide potentially useful "recipes" for modelling the SFR in numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.

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Topics: Protogalaxy (58%), Star formation (58%), Galaxy formation and evolution (56%) ...read more

4,536 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/300353
Abstract: We construct dynamical models for a sample of 36 nearby galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry and ground-based kinematics. The models assume that each galaxy is axisymmetric, with a two-integral distribution function, arbitrary inclination angle, a position-independent stellar mass-to-light ratio , and a central massive dark object (MDO) of arbitrary mass M•. They provide acceptable fits to 32 of the galaxies for some value of M• and ; the four galaxies that cannot be fitted have kinematically decoupled cores. The mass-to-light ratios inferred for the 32 well-fitted galaxies are consistent with the fundamental-plane correlation ∝ L0.2, where L is galaxy luminosity. In all but six galaxies the models require at the 95% confidence level an MDO of mass M• ~ 0.006Mbulge ≡ 0.006L. Five of the six galaxies consistent with M• = 0 are also consistent with this correlation. The other (NGC 7332) has a much stronger upper limit on M•. We predict the second-moment profiles that should be observed at HST resolution for the 32 galaxies that our models describe well. We consider various parameterizations for the probability distribution describing the correlation of the masses of these MDOs with other galaxy properties. One of the best models can be summarized thus: a fraction f 0.97 of early-type galaxies have MDOs, whose masses are well described by a Gaussian distribution in log (M•/Mbulge) of mean -2.28 and standard deviation ~0.51. There is also marginal evidence that M• is distributed differently for core and power law galaxies, with core galaxies having a somewhat steeper dependence on Mbulge.

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Topics: Elliptical galaxy (64%), Galaxy group (63%), Lenticular galaxy (63%) ...read more

3,795 Citations



Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2021554
2020651
2019619
2018520
2017575
2016558

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Carlos S. Frenk

246 papers, 42.2K citations

Carlton M. Baugh

197 papers, 19.2K citations

Volker Springel

150 papers, 33.9K citations

Rachel S. Somerville

144 papers, 14.8K citations

Joseph Silk

129 papers, 7.6K citations

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