About: Galeopsis is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 40 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 503 citation(s).
TL;DR: Flavonoid p -coumaroylglucosides are valuable markers for chemotaxonomic studies and are universally present in the subgenus Marrubiastrum of Sideritis and in section Betonica of genus Stachys, while 8-hydroxyflavone 7-allosylglucOSides accumulate in the other Siderococcus species.
Abstract: The occurrence of flavonoid p -coumaroylglucosides and 8-hydroxyflavone 7-allosylglucosides is restricted, in the Labiatae, to some genera of subfamily Lamioideae (tribe Stachydeae). Generally both types of compounds do not co-occur in the same species. Thus, flavonoid p -coumaroylglucosides are present in all the species studied of the genera Ballota , Phlomis and Marrubium , and are universally present in the subgenus Marrubiastrum of Sideritis , in subgenus Galeopsis and in section Betonica of genus Stachys , while 8-hydroxyflavone 7-allosylglucosides accumulate in the other Sideritis , Stachys and Galeopsis species. Amongst the flavonoid p -coumaroylglucosides, the apigenin derivatives occur most frequently but also the corresponding luteolin, chrysoeriol, kaempforol and isorhamnetin glycosides have been detected. The 8-hydroxyflavone allosylglucosides occur as such and also as the monoacetylated and diacetylated derivatives. The presence of p -coumaroylglucosides and/or 8-hydroxyflavone allosylglucosides shows the affinities of Anisomeles , Pogostemon , and Leonurus species with Ballota , Marrubium , Phlomis , Sideritis , Stachys and Galeopsis species. These results suggest that flavonoid p -coumaroylglucosides are valuable markers for chemotaxonomic studies.
TL;DR: The presence of two divergent copies of single-copy NRPA2 confirms the allopolyploid origins of G. tetrahit and Galeopsis bifida, and addresses questions of general interest within polyploidy research, such as recurrent formation, gene flow and introgression within and between ploidy levels.
Abstract: Whole-genome duplication coupled with hybridization is of prime importance in plant evolution. Here we reinvestigate Muntzing's classical example of allopolyploid speciation; the first report of experimental synthesis of a naturally occurring allopolyploid species, Galeopsis tetrahit. Various molecular markers (cpDNA, NRPA2, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs)) and flow cytometry were surveyed in population samples of subgenus Galeopsis, including two allopolyploid species and their potential diploid parents. The presence of two divergent copies of single-copy NRPA2 confirms the allopolyploid origins of G. tetrahit and Galeopsis bifida. However, the two allopolyploids do not share the same maternal genome, as originally suggested by Muntzing. The results support independent origins, but not recurrent formation, of the two allotetraploids. Data further indicate frequent gene flow and introgression within ploidy levels, but less so between ploidy levels. Our results confirm and elaborate on Muntzing's classical conclusion about allopolyploid origins of G. tetrahit and G. bifida. We address questions of general interest within polyploidy research, such as recurrent formation, gene flow and introgression within and between ploidy levels.