About: Gallic acid is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9695 publications have been published within this topic receiving 287033 citations. The topic is also known as: pyrogallol-5-carboxylic acid & 3,4,5-Trihydroxy-Benzoate.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The antiradical properties of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) in its radical form as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.
TL;DR: High activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet and potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects.
Abstract: The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE < 12.1 mg/g). Among nonedible plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.
TL;DR: Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer might be potential sources of potent natural antioxidants and beneficial chemopreventive agents, and contain significantly higher levels of phenolics than common vegetables and fruits.
Abstract: Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS(*+) method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values and total phenolic content for methanolic extracts of herbs ranged from 46.7 to 17,323 micromol Trolox equivalent/100 g dry weight (DW), and from 0.22 to 50.3 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW, respectively. A positive, significant linear relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (all R(2) values>/=0.95) showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in the tested medicinal herbs. Major types of phenolic compounds from most of the tested herbs were preliminarily identified and analyzed, and mainly included phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, lignans, quinones, stilbenes, and curcuminoids. These medicinal herbs exhibited far stronger antioxidant activity and contained significantly higher levels of phenolics than common vegetables and fruits. Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer might be potential sources of potent natural antioxidants and beneficial chemopreventive agents.
TL;DR: The development of a simple, widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E is reported, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine [Cu(II-Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent.
Abstract: The chemical diversity of antioxidants makes it difficult to separate and quantify antioxidants from the vegetable matrix. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a method that can measure the total antioxidant activity level directly from vegetable extracts. The current literature clearly states that there is no "total antioxidant" as a nutritional index available for food labeling because of the lack of standard quantitation methods. Thus, this work reports the development of a simple, widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine [Cu(II)-Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. Because the copper(II) (or cupric) ion reducing ability of polyphenols is measured, the method is named by our research group "cupric reducing antioxidant capacity" abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. This method should be advantageous over the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method because the redox chemistry of copper(II)-as opposed to that of ferric ion-involves faster kinetics. The method comprises mixing of the antioxidant solution (directly or after acid hydrolysis) with a copper(II) chloride solution, a neocuproine alcoholic solution, and an ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7 and subsequent measurement of the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Because the color development is fast for compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds were assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min [after Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition] so as to force the oxidation reaction to reach completion. The flavonoid glycosides were hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycons by refluxing in 1.2 M HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power toward Cu(II)-Nc. Certain compounds also needed incubation after acid hydrolysis to fully exhibit their reducing capability. The CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of synthetic mixtures of antioxidants were experimentally measured as Trolox equivalents and compared to those theoretically found by making use of the principle of additivity of absorbances assuming no chemical interaction between the mixture constituents. Because ascorbic acid is not resistant to elevated temperature incubation, it should be assayed initially by measuring the absorbance (at 450 nm) difference of original and ascorbate oxidase-added mixture solutions at the end of 1 min of Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition. Thus, the total CUPRAC antioxidant capacity of a mixture containing various antioxidants should be that finally measured after a suitable combination of hydrolysis and incubation procedures, added to the initially measured capacity due to ascorbate. The antioxidant polyphenolic compounds tested demonstrate that the highest capacities in the CUPRAC method were observed for epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, fisetin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and caffeic acid in this order, in accordance with theoretical expectations, because the number and position of the hydroxyl groups as well as the degree of conjugation of the whole molecule are important. The antioxidant potency of flavonoids is nearly proportional to the total number of -OH groups and is positively affected by the presence of an o-dihydroxy moiety in the B-ring. beta-Carotene, which did not react with the CUPRAC reagent in alcoholic aqueous medium, could be assayed in dichloromethane solvent. Linear calibration curves for ascorbic acid and flavonoids were redrawn in synthetic solutions containing a mixture of antioxidants, and also in real matrices such as grape and orange juices, green tea, and blackberry tea, showing an initial nonzero absorbance with the CUPRAC reagent. The parallellism of the linear calibration curves of pure compounds in a given complex matrix effectively demonstrated that there were no interferent chemical interactions among the solution constituents and that the antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidants were additive. The CUPRAC reagent is reasonably selective, stable, easily accessible, and sensitive toward thiol-type oxidants, unlike the FRAP method. The reaction is carried out at nearly physiological pH as opposed to the unrealistic acidic pH of FRAP.
TL;DR: The aim of this review is to summarize and analyze the vast and sometimes conflicting literature on tannins and to provide as accurately as possible the needed information for assessment of the overall effects of tannin effects on human health.
Abstract: Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They have been reported to be responsible for decreases in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy, and protein digestibility in experimental animals. Therefore, foods rich in tannins are considered to be of low nutritional value. However, recent findings indicate that the major effect of tannins was not due to their inhibition on food consumption or digestion but rather the decreased efficiency in converting the absorbed nutrients to new body substances. Incidences of certain cancers, such as esophageal cancer, have been reported to be related to consumption of tannins-rich foods such as betel nuts and herbal teas, suggesting that tannins might be carcinogenic. However, other reports indicated that the carcinogenic activity of tannins might be related to components associated with tannins rather than tannins themselves. Interestingly, many reports indicated negative association between tea consumption and incidences of cancers. Tea polyphenols and many tannin components were suggested to be anticarcinogenic. Many tannin molecules have also been shown to reduce the mutagenic activity of a number of mutagens. Many carcinogens and/or mutagens produce oxygen-free radicals for interaction with cellular macromolecules. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic potentials of tannins may be related to their antioxidative property, which is important in protecting cellular oxidative damage, including lipid peroxidation. The generation of superoxide radicals was reported to be inhibited by tannins and related compounds. The antimicrobial activities of tannins are well documented. The growth of many fungi, yeasts, bacteria, and viruses was inhibited by tannins. We have also found that tannic acid and propyl gallate, but not gallic acid, were inhibitory to foodborne bacteria, aquatic bacteria, and off-flavor-producing microorganisms. Their antimicrobial properties seemed to be associated with the hydrolysis of ester linkage between gallic acid and polyols hydrolyzed after ripening of many edible fruits. Tannins in these fruits thus serve as a natural defense mechanism against microbial infections. The antimicrobial property of tannic acid can also be used in food processing to increase the shelf-life of certain foods, such as catfish fillets. Tannins have also been reported to exert other physiological effects, such as to accelerate blood clotting, reduce blood pressure, decrease the serum lipid level, produce liver necrosis, and modulate immunoresponses. The dosage and kind of tannins are critical to these effects. The aim of this review is to summarize and analyze the vast and sometimes conflicting literature on tannins and to provide as accurately as possible the needed information for assessment of the overall effects of tannins on human health.
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