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Gear shaping

About: Gear shaping is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 598 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1880 citation(s).
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Patent
06 Feb 1996-
Abstract: A multifunction, compact machining center has a work spindle which can rotate at high speed, or controlled by a C axis servo driver, and a frame-shaped tool magazine, which is composed of a standing part and a rotatable part. Arranged on the standing part are enough internal and external turning tools to complete all turning processes on one workpiece. Driven tools are held on the rotatable part to do drilling, boring, milling, gear hobbing, grinding, lapping etc. on the same workpiece at arbitrary angles. Additionally, work units for quenching, laser machining, gear shaping, bevel gear cutting, measuring, loading and unloading can also be employed on the tool magazine. By means of movements of the tool magazine relative to the work spindle in the plane perpendicular to the Z axis, each cutting tool or working unit can be put into the working area of the workpiece sequentially so as to complete all machining, measuring, loading and unloading. This invention replaces several machining centers or an FMS, and advantageously, this compact machining center avoids accuracy loss and waste of time caused by repeated clamping.

66 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Sensing techniques for monitoring machining processes have been one of the focuses of research on process automation. This paper presents the development of on-line tool-life monitoring system for gear shaping that uses acoustic emission (AE). Characteristics of the AE signals are related to the cutting condition, tool material and tool geometry in the cutting of metals. The relationship between AE signal and tool wear was investigated experimentally. Experiments were carried out on the gear shaping of SCM 420 material with a pinion cutter having 44 teeth. Root-mean-square (RMS) AE voltages increase regularly according to tool wear. It is suggested that the maximum value of RMS AE voltage is an effective parameter to monitor tool life. In this study, not only the acquisition method of AE signals for rotating objects but also the signal-processing technique were developed in order to realize the in-process monitoring system for gear shaping. The on-line tool-life monitoring system developed has been successfully applied to gear machining processes.

37 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Fangyan Zheng1, Hua Lin1, Han Xinghui1, Bo Li1, Dingfang Chen1 
Abstract: Current research of non-circular gear processing mainly focuses on gear hobbing. However, this method has many limitations including being unable to process internal gears or non-circular external gears with a concave pitch curve and is likely to undercut when processing non-circular gears of greater curvature with a smaller number of teeth. Gear shaping, in contrast, is a method that is able to overcome the limitations of gear hobbing. Relevant studies on gear shaping have focused on the theoretical bases rather than the concrete processes and tools. Through the combination of shaping theory and practice, this paper aimed to derive a linkage model for shaping non-circular gears, and to refine the feeding strategy, and develop a cutter retraction and cutter setting method. Finally, with a pair of 3-order sinusoidal-gear-ratio non-circular gears, this paper demonstrated the entire process in a CNC gear-shaping machine, thus proving the accuracy of the mathematical model and providing a valid reference for shaping non-circular gears.

37 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A simple and accurate numerical method was proposed for calculating the tooth profile of a noncircular gear. This method is directly based on the real gear shaping process, rather than deducing and solving complicated meshing equations used in the traditional method. The tooth profile is gradually obtained from the boundary produced by continuously plotting the cutter profile on the gear transverse plane. The key point of the method is picking up the graph boundaries. The relative position of the cutter profile on the gear transverse plane is determined by the given pitch line of the noncircular gear, parameters of the shaper cutter, and the shaping process data. In comparison with the traditional method, it is universal and is much more efficient and accurate, especially for noncircular gears, which have nontrivial pitch lines. Special problems in gear design and manufacturing, such as tooth pointing, undercut, and fillet interference, are included in the process. As an application example of the numerical method, a square internal gear is chosen from a new type of hydraulic motor with noncircular planetary gears, and the tooth profile of that gear is computed. The gear is successfully machined by electromagnetic discharge (EMD) using the resulting data.

35 citations


BookDOI
23 Feb 2010-
Abstract: Part I: Basics Gears: Geometry of the Tooth Flanks Basic Kinds of Gears Analytical Description of Gear Tooth Flanks Gear Tooth Surfaces those Allowing Sliding Over Them Principal Kinematics of Gear Machining Operations Relative Motions in Gear Machining Rolling of the Conjugate Surfaces Kinematics of Continuously Indexing Methods of Gear Machining Processes Vectorial Representation of the Gear Machining Mesh Kinematic Relationships for the Gear Machining Mesh Configuration of the Vectors of Relative Motions Kinematics of Gear Machining Processes Elements of Coordinate Systems Transformations Coordinate Systems Transformation Conversion of the Coordinate System Orientation Direct Transformation of Surfaces Fundamental Forms Part II: Form Gear Cutting Tools Gear Broaching Tools Kinematics of the Gear Broaching Process Generating Surface of a Gear Broach Cutting Edges of the Gear Broaching Tools Chip Removal Diagrams Sharpening of Gear Broaches A Concept of Precision Gear Broaching Tool for Machining Involute Gears Application of Gear Broaching Tools Shear-Speed Cutting Rotary Broaches: Slater Tools Broaching Bevel Gear Teeth End-Type Gear Milling Cutters Kinematics of Gear Cutting with End-Type Milling Cutter Generating Surface of the End-Type Gear Milling Cutter Cutting Edge of the End-Type Gear Milling Cutter Accuracy of the Gear Tooth Flanks Machined with End-Type Milling Cutter Application of the End-Type Gear Milling Cutters Disk-Type Gear Milling Cutters Kinematics of Gear Cutting with Disk-Type Milling Cutter Generating Surface of the Disk-Type Gear Milling Cutter Cutting Edges of the Disk-Type Gear Milling Cutter Profiling of the Disk-Type Gear Milling Cutters Cutting Edge Geometry of the Disk-Type Milling Cutter Disk-Type Milling Cutters for Roughing of Gears Accuracy of the Gear Tooth Flanks Machined with the Disk-Type Milling Cutters Application of Disk-Type Gear Milling Cutters Nontraditional Methods of Gear Machining with Form Cutting Tools Plurality of Single-Parametric Motions Implementation of the Single-Parametric Motions for Designing of Form Gear Cutting Tool Diversity of Form Tools for Machining a Given Gear On Classification of Form Gear Tools Part III: Cutting Tools for Gear Generating Parallel-Axis Gear Machining Mesh Kinematics of the Parallel-Axis Gear Machining Mesh Rack Cutters for Planing of Gears Generating Surface of Rack Cutter On the Variety of Feasible Tooth Profiles of the Rack Cutters Cutting Edges of the Rack Cutter Profiling of the Rack Cutters Cutting Edge Geometry of the Rack Cutter Chip Thickness Cut by Cutting Edges of the Rack Cutter Tooth Accuracy of the Machined Gear Application of the Rack Cutters Potential Methods of Gear Cutting and Designs of Rack-Type Gear Cutting Tools Gear Shaper Cutters I: External Gear Machining Mesh Kinematics of Gear Shaping Operation Generating Surface of Gear Shaper Cutter Cutting Edges of the Shaper Cutter Profiling of Shaper Cutters Critical Distance to the Nominal Cross-Section of the Shaper Cutter The Cutting Edge Geometry of a Shaper Cutter Tooth Desired Corrections to the Shaper Cutter Tooth Profile Thickness of Chip Cut by Shaper Cutter Tooth Accuracy of Gears Cut with the Shaper Cutter Application of Gear Shaper Cutters Gear Shaper Cutters II: Internal Gear Machining Mesh Kinematics of Shaping Operation of an Internal Gear Design of Shaper Cutters Thickness of Chip Cut by the Gear Shaper Cutter Tooth Accuracy of the Shaped Internal Gears Enveloping Gear Shaper Cutters Application of Gear Shaper Cutters Part IV: Cutting Tools for Gear Generation Intersecting-Axis Gear Machining Mesh Kinematics of the Intersecting-Axis Gear Machining Mesh Gear Shapers with Tilted Axis of Rotation Kinematics of Gear Shaping Operation with the Shaping Cutters Having Tilted Axis of Rotation Determination of Generating Surface of a Shaper having Tilted Axis of Rotation Illustration of Capabilities of the External Intersecting-Axis Gear Machining Mesh Gear Cutting Tools for Machining Bevel Gears Principal Elements of Kinematics of Bevel Gear Generation Geometry of the Interacting Tooth Surfaces Peculiarities of Generation of Straight Bevel Gears with Offset Teeth Generation of Straight Bevel Gear Teeth Peculiarities of Straight Bevel Gear Cutting Milling of Straight Bevel Gears Machining of Bevel Gears having Curved Teeth Gear Shaper Cutters Having Tilted Axis of Rotation: Internal Gear Machining Mesh Principal Kinematics of Internal Gear Machining Mesh Peculiarities of Design of Gear Cutting Tools Part V: CUTTING TOOLS FOR GENERATING OF GEARS: Spatial Gear Machining Mesh Section V-A: Design of Gear Cutting Tools: External Gear Machining Mesh Generating Surface of the Gear Cutting Tool Kinematics of External Spatial Gear Machining Mesh Auxiliary Generating Surface of the Gear Cutting Tool Examples of Possible Kinds of Auxiliary Generating Surfaces of Gear Cutting Tools Generation of Generating Surface of a Gear Cutting Tool Use of the DG-Based Methods for the Determination of the Design Parameters of Generating Surfaces of the Gear Cutting Tools Possible Kinds of Generating Surfaces of Gear Cutting Tools Constraints on the Design Parameters of Generating Surface of a Gear Cutting Tool Hobs for Machining Gears Transformation of the Generating Surface into a Workable Gear Cutting Tool Geometry and Generation of Rake Surface of a Gear Hob Geometry and Generation of Clearance Surfaces of Gear Hobs Accuracy of Hobs for Machining of Involute Gears Design of Gear Hobs The Cutting Edge Geometry of a Gear Hob Tooth Constraints on the Parameters of Modification of the Hob Tooth Profile Application of Hobs for Machining Gears Gear Shaving Cutters Transformation of Generating Surface into a Workable Gear Shaving Cutter Design of Gear Shaving Cutters Axial Method of Gear Shaving Process Diagonal Method of Gear Shaving Process Tangential Method of Gear Shaving Process Plunge Method of Gear Shaving Process Advances in Design of Shaving Cutter Peculiarities of Gear Shaving Process Examples of Implementation of the Classification of Kinds of the Gear Machining Meshes A Hob for Tangential Gear Hobbing A Hob for Plunge Gear Hobbing Hobbing of a Face Gear A Worm-Type Gear Cutting Tool Having the Continuous HS-Cutting Edge Cutting Tools for Scudding Gears A Shaper Cutter with the Tilted Axis of Rotation for Shaping Cylindrical Gears A Gear Cutting Tool for Machining a Worm in Continuously Indexing Method Rack Shaving Cutters A Tool for Reinforcement of a Gear by Surface Plastic Deformation Conical Hob for Palloid Method of Gear Cutting Section V-B: Design of Gear Cutting Tools: Quasi-Planar Gear Machining Mesh Kinematics of Quasi-Planar Gear Machining Mesh Gear Cutting Tools for Machining Bevel Gears Design of a Gear Cutting Tool for Plunge Method of Machining of Bevel Gears Face Hob for Cutting Bevel Gear More Possibilities for Designing Gear Cutting Tools Based on Quasi-Planar Gear Machining Mesh Section V-C: Internal Work-Gear to Cutting Tool Mesh Kinematics of Internal Spatial Work-Gear to Cutting Tool Mesh Gear Cutting Tools Featuring Enveloping Generating Surface Gear Cutting Tools having a Cylindrical Generating Surface Gear Cutting Tools having Conical Generating Surface Gear Cutting Tools having a Toroidal Generating Surface Gear Cutting Tools for Machining Internal Gears Principal Design Parameters of a Gear Cutting Tool for Machining an Internal Gear Examples of Gear Cutting Tool for Machining an Internal Gear Conclusion Appendices References Index

32 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20215
202023
201946
201841
201751
201651

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Fangyan Zheng

5 papers, 76 citations

Kaan Erkorkmaz

3 papers, 36 citations

Wayne Densmore

3 papers, 25 citations

Loyd L. Koch

3 papers, 25 citations

Fathy Ismail

3 papers, 36 citations