About: Gene knockdown is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 29804 publications have been published within this topic receiving 811346 citations. The topic is also known as: Gene Knockdown Techniques & Gene Knockdown Technique.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is shown that a single miRNA can repress the production of hundreds of proteins, but that this repression is typically relatively mild, and the data suggest that a mi RNA can, by direct or indirect effects, tune protein synthesis from thousands of genes.
Abstract: Animal microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation and/or by inducing degradation of target messenger RNAs. It is unknown how much translational control is exerted by miRNAs on a genome-wide scale. We used a new proteomic approach to measure changes in synthesis of several thousand proteins in response to miRNA transfection or endogenous miRNA knockdown. In parallel, we quantified mRNA levels using microarrays. Here we show that a single miRNA can repress the production of hundreds of proteins, but that this repression is typically relatively mild. A number of known features of the miRNA-binding site such as the seed sequence also govern repression of human protein synthesis, and we report additional target sequence characteristics. We demonstrate that, in addition to downregulating mRNA levels, miRNAs also directly repress translation of hundreds of genes. Finally, our data suggest that a miRNA can, by direct or indirect effects, tune protein synthesis from thousands of genes.
TL;DR: It is shown that exosomes—endogenous nano-vesicles that transport RNAs and proteins—can deliver short interfering (si)RNA to the brain in mice, and the therapeutic potential of exosome-mediated siRNA delivery was demonstrated by the strong mRNA and protein knockdown of BACE1, a therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease, in wild-type mice.
Abstract: To realize the therapeutic potential of RNA drugs, efficient, tissue-specific and nonimmunogenic delivery technologies must be developed. Here we show that exosomes-endogenous nano-vesicles that transport RNAs and proteins-can deliver short interfering (si)RNA to the brain in mice. To reduce immunogenicity, we used self-derived dendritic cells for exosome production. Targeting was achieved by engineering the dendritic cells to express Lamp2b, an exosomal membrane protein, fused to the neuron-specific RVG peptide. Purified exosomes were loaded with exogenous siRNA by electroporation. Intravenously injected RVG-targeted exosomes delivered GAPDH siRNA specifically to neurons, microglia, oligodendrocytes in the brain, resulting in a specific gene knockdown. Pre-exposure to RVG exosomes did not attenuate knockdown, and non-specific uptake in other tissues was not observed. The therapeutic potential of exosome-mediated siRNA delivery was demonstrated by the strong mRNA (60%) and protein (62%) knockdown of BACE1, a therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease, in wild-type mice.
TL;DR: It is shown that the highly malignant human brain tumor, glioblastoma, strongly over-expresses a specific miRNA, miR-21, which may contribute to the malignant phenotype by blocking expression of critical apoptosis-related genes.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate protein expression by targeting the mRNA of protein-coding genes for either cleavage or repression of translation. The roles of miRNAs in lineage determination and proliferation as well as the location of several miRNA genes at sites of translocation breakpoints or deletions has led to the speculation that miRNAs could be important factors in the development or maintenance of the neoplastic state. Here we show that the highly malignant human brain tumor, glioblastoma, strongly overexpresses a specific miRNA, miR-21. Our studies show markedly elevated miR-21 levels in human glioblastoma tumor tissues, early-passage glioblastoma cultures, and in six established glioblastoma cell lines (A172, U87, U373, LN229, LN428, and LN308) compared with nonneoplastic fetal and adult brain tissues and compared with cultured nonneoplastic glial cells. Knockdown of miR-21 in cultured glioblastoma cells triggers activation of caspases and leads to increased apoptotic cell death. Our data suggest that aberrantly expressed miR-21 may contribute to the malignant phenotype by blocking expression of critical apoptosis-related genes.
TL;DR: It is shown here that antisense, morpholino-modified oligonucleotides (morpholinos) are effective and specific translational inhibitors in zebrafish, and conserved vertebrate processes and diseases are now amenable to a systematic, in vivo, reverse-genetic paradigm using zebra fish embryos.
Abstract: The sequencing of the zebrafish genome should be completed by the end of 2002. Direct assignment of function on the basis of this information would be facilitated by the development of a rapid, targeted 'knockdown' technology in this model vertebrate. We show here that antisense, morpholino-modified oligonucleotides (morpholinos) are effective and specific translational inhibitors in zebrafish. We generated phenocopies of mutations of the genes no tail (ref. 2), chordin (ref. 3), one-eyed-pinhead (ref. 4), nacre (ref. 5) and sparse (ref. 6), removing gene function from maternal through post-segmentation and organogenesis developmental stages. We blocked expression from a ubiquitous green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgene, showing that, unlike tissue-restricted limitations found with RNA-based interference in the nematode, all zebrafish cells readily respond to this technique. We also developed also morpholino-based zebrafish models of human disease. Morpholinos targeted to the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase gene result in embryos with hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. We also used morpholinos for the determination of new gene functions. We showed that embryos with reduced sonic hedgehog (ref. 9) signalling and reduced tiggy-winkle hedgehog (ref. 10) function exhibit partial cyclopia and other specific midline abnormalities, providing a zebrafish genetic model for the common human disorder holoprosencephaly. Conserved vertebrate processes and diseases are now amenable to a systematic, in vivo, reverse-genetic paradigm using zebrafish embryos.
TL;DR: Application of an algorithm incorporating all eight characteristics associated with siRNA functionality significantly improves potent siRNA selection and highlights the utility of rational design for selecting potent siRNAs and facilitating functional gene knockdown studies.
Abstract: Short-interfering RNAs suppress gene expression through a highly regulated enzyme-mediated process called RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi involves multiple RNA-protein interactions characterized by four major steps: assembly of siRNA with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), activation of the RISC, target recognition and target cleavage. These interactions may bias strand selection during siRNA-RISC assembly and activation, and contribute to the overall efficiency of RNAi. To identify siRNA-specific features likely to contribute to efficient processing at each step, we performed a systematic analysis of 180 siRNAs targeting the mRNA of two genes. Eight characteristics associated with siRNA functionality were identified: low G/C content, a bias towards low internal stability at the sense strand 3'-terminus, lack of inverted repeats, and sense strand base preferences (positions 3, 10, 13 and 19). Further analyses revealed that application of an algorithm incorporating all eight criteria significantly improves potent siRNA selection. This highlights the utility of rational design for selecting potent siRNAs and facilitating functional gene knockdown studies.
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