About: Genetic diversity is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 42828 publications have been published within this topic receiving 873477 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Unlike eukaryotes, which evolve principally through the modification of existing genetic information, bacteria have obtained a significant proportion of their genetic diversity through the acquisition of sequences from distantly related organisms.
Abstract: Unlike eukaryotes, which evolve principally through the modification of existing genetic information, bacteria have obtained a significant proportion of their genetic diversity through the acquisition of sequences from distantly related organisms. Horizontal gene transfer produces extremely dynamic genomes in which substantial amounts of DNA are introduced into and deleted from the chromosome. These lateral transfers have effectively changed the ecological and pathogenic character of bacterial species.
TL;DR: A new approach has emerged for analyzing spatial genetic data without requiring that discrete populations be identified in advance, and promises to facilitate the understanding of how geographical and environmental features structure genetic variation at both the population and individual levels.
Abstract: Understanding the processes and patterns of gene flow and local adaptation requires a detailed knowledge of how landscape characteristics structure populations. This understanding is crucial, not only for improving ecological knowledge, but also for managing properly the genetic diversity of threatened and endangered populations. For nearly 80 years, population geneticists have investigated how physiognomy and other landscape features have influenced genetic variation within and between populations. They have relied on sampling populations that have been identified beforehand because most population genetics methods have required discrete populations. However, a new approach has emerged for analyzing spatial genetic data without requiring that discrete populations be identified in advance. This approach, landscape genetics, promises to facilitate our understanding of how geographical and environmental features structure genetic variation at both the population and individual levels, and has implications for ecology, evolution and conservation biology. It differs from other genetic approaches, such as phylogeography, in that it tends to focus on processes at finer spatial and temporal scales. Here, we discuss, from a population genetic perspective, the current tools available for conducting studies of landscape genetics.
TL;DR: The tools of genome research may finally unleash the genetic potential of the authors' wild and cultivated germplasm resources for the benefit of society.
Abstract: Nearly a century has been spent collecting and preserving genetic diversity in plants. Germplasm banks-living seed collections that serve as repositories of genetic variation-have been established as a source of genes for improving agricultural crops. Genetic linkage maps have made it possible to study the chromosomal locations of genes for improving yield and other complex traits important to agriculture. The tools of genome research may finally unleash the genetic potential of our wild and cultivated germplasm resources for the benefit of society.
TL;DR: An analysis of twelve plant families indicated that species within families with predominately outcrossing, woody species had more genetic diversity and less interpopulation differentiation than species withinfamilies with predominate herbaceous species.
Abstract: Seven two-trait combinations (e.g. breeding system and seed dispersal mechanism) of five life history characteristics were used to analyse interspecific variation in the level and distribution of allozyme genetic diversity in seed plants. Highly significant differences were seen among categories for all seven comparisons. Life form and breeding system had highly significant influences on genetic diversity and its distribution. Regardless of other traits, outcrossing species tended to be more genetically diverse and had less genetic differentiation among their populations. Similarly, woody plants have less among population differentiation and somewhat more genetic diversity than non-woody species with similar life history traits. An analysis of twelve plant families indicated that species within families with predominately outcrossing, woody species had more genetic diversity and less interpopulation differentiation than species within families with predominately herbaceous species.
TL;DR: Concerns that the loss of heterozygosity has a deleterious effect on population fitness are strengthened and the IUCN designation of genetic diversity as worthy of conservation is supported.
Abstract: Genetic diversity is one of the three forms of biodiversity recognized by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as deserving conservation. The need to conserve genetic diversity within populations is based on two arguments: the necessity of genetic diversity for evolution to occur, and the expected relation- ship between heterozygosity and population fitness. Because loss of genetic diversity is related to inbreed- ing, and inbreeding reduces reproductive fitness, a correlation is expected between heterozygosity and pop- ulation fitness. Long-term effective population size, which determines rates of inbreeding, should also be correlated with fitness. However, other theoretical considerations and empirical observations suggest that the correlation between fitness and heterozygosity may be weak or nonexistent. We used all the data sets we could locate (34) to perform a meta-analysis and resolve the issue. Data sets were included in the study, provided that fitness, or a component of fitness, was measured for three or more populations along with heterozygosity, heritability, and/or population size. The mean weighted correlation between measures of genetic diversity, at the population level, and population fitness was 0.4323. The correlation was highly sig- nificant and explained 19% of the variation in fitness. Our study strengthens concerns that the loss of het- erozygosity has a deleterious effect on population fitness and supports the IUCN designation of genetic di- versity as worthy of conservation.