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Genome-wide association study

About: Genome-wide association study is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17515 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 988576 citation(s). The topic is also known as: GWAS & Genome-Wide Association Study.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE15393
Adam Auton1, Gonçalo R. Abecasis2, David Altshuler3, Richard Durbin4  +514 moreInstitutions (90)
01 Oct 2015-Nature
Abstract: The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.

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Topics: 1000 Genomes Project (62%), Exome sequencing (59%), Genome-wide association study (59%) ...read more

9,821 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE05911
Paul Burton1, David Clayton2, Lon R. Cardon, Nicholas John Craddock3  +192 moreInstitutions (4)
07 Jun 2007-Nature
Abstract: There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association ( GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study ( using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined similar to 2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of similar to 3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P < 5 X 10(-7): 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn's disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals ( including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10(-5) and 5 X 10(-7)) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research.

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Topics: Population (55%), Population stratification (55%), Genome-wide association study (54%) ...read more

8,858 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NG1847
Alkes L. Price1, Alkes L. Price2, Nick Patterson2, Robert M. Plenge3  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
23 Jul 2006-Nature Genetics
Abstract: Population stratification—allele frequency differences between cases and controls due to systematic ancestry differences—can cause spurious associations in disease studies. We describe a method that enables explicit detection and correction of population stratification on a genome-wide scale. Our method uses principal components analysis to explicitly model ancestry differences between cases and controls. The resulting correction is specific to a candidate marker’s variation in frequency across ancestral populations, minimizing spurious associations while maximizing power to detect true associations. Our simple, efficient approach can easily be applied to disease studies with hundreds of thousands of markers. Population stratification—allele frequency differences between cases and controls due to systematic ancestry differences—can cause spurious associations in disease studies 1‐8 . Because the effects of stratification vary in proportion to the number of samples 9 , stratification will be an increasing problem in the large-scale association studies of the future, which will analyze thousands of samples in an effort to detect common genetic variants of weak effect. The two prevailing methods for dealing with stratification are genomic control and structured association 9‐14 . Although genomic control and structured association have proven useful in a variety of contexts, they have limitations. Genomic control corrects for stratification by adjusting association statistics at each marker by a uniform overall inflation factor. However, some markers differ in their allele frequencies across ancestral populations more than others. Thus, the uniform adjustment applied by genomic control may be insufficient at markers having unusually strong differentiation across ancestral populations and may be superfluous at markers devoid of such differentiation, leading to a loss in power. Structured association uses a program such as STRUCTURE 15 to assign the samples to discrete subpopulation clusters and then aggregates evidence of association within each cluster. If fractional membership in more than one cluster is allowed, the method cannot currently be applied to genome-wide association studies because of its intensive computational cost on large data sets. Furthermore, assignments of individuals to clusters are highly sensitive to the number of clusters, which is not well defined 14,16 .

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Topics: Population stratification (65%), Population (53%), Genome-wide association study (53%) ...read more

8,407 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11632
01 Nov 2012-Nature
Abstract: By characterizing the geographic and functional spectrum of human genetic variation, the 1000 Genomes Project aims to build a resource to help to understand the genetic contribution to disease. Here we describe the genomes of 1,092 individuals from 14 populations, constructed using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome and exome sequencing. By developing methods to integrate information across several algorithms and diverse data sources, we provide a validated haplotype map of 38 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1.4 million short insertions and deletions, and more than 14,000 larger deletions. We show that individuals from different populations carry different profiles of rare and common variants, and that low-frequency variants show substantial geographic differentiation, which is further increased by the action of purifying selection. We show that evolutionary conservation and coding consequence are key determinants of the strength of purifying selection, that rare-variant load varies substantially across biological pathways, and that each individual contains hundreds of rare non-coding variants at conserved sites, such as motif-disrupting changes in transcription-factor-binding sites. This resource, which captures up to 98% of accessible single nucleotide polymorphisms at a frequency of 1% in related populations, enables analysis of common and low-frequency variants in individuals from diverse, including admixed, populations.

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Topics: 1000 Genomes Project (62%), Human genetic variation (57%), Genome-wide association study (55%) ...read more

7,236 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE09534
28 Oct 2010-Nature
Abstract: The 1000 Genomes Project aims to provide a deep characterization of human genome sequence variation as a foundation for investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Here we present results of the pilot phase of the project, designed to develop and compare different strategies for genome-wide sequencing with high-throughput platforms. We undertook three projects: low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of 179 individuals from four populations; high-coverage sequencing of two mother-father-child trios; and exon-targeted sequencing of 697 individuals from seven populations. We describe the location, allele frequency and local haplotype structure of approximately 15 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1 million short insertions and deletions, and 20,000 structural variants, most of which were previously undescribed. We show that, because we have catalogued the vast majority of common variation, over 95% of the currently accessible variants found in any individual are present in this data set. On average, each person is found to carry approximately 250 to 300 loss-of-function variants in annotated genes and 50 to 100 variants previously implicated in inherited disorders. We demonstrate how these results can be used to inform association and functional studies. From the two trios, we directly estimate the rate of de novo germline base substitution mutations to be approximately 10(-8) per base pair per generation. We explore the data with regard to signatures of natural selection, and identify a marked reduction of genetic variation in the neighbourhood of genes, due to selection at linked sites. These methods and public data will support the next phase of human genetic research.

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Topics: Exome sequencing (63%), 1000 Genomes Project (62%), Imputation (genetics) (59%) ...read more

7,174 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202212
20211,478
20201,363
20191,362
20181,378
20171,428

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

André G. Uitterlinden

339 papers, 71.6K citations

Grant W. Montgomery

249 papers, 49.2K citations

Nicholas G. Martin

218 papers, 37.5K citations

Albert Hofman

212 papers, 47.9K citations

Jerome I. Rotter

211 papers, 43.8K citations

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