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Geographic routing

About: Geographic routing is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11687 publications have been published within this topic receiving 302224 citations.


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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2000
TL;DR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing is presented, a novel routing protocol for wireless datagram networks that uses the positions of routers and a packet's destination to make packet forwarding decisions and its scalability on densely deployed wireless networks is demonstrated.
Abstract: We present Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), a novel routing protocol for wireless datagram networks that uses the positions of routers and a packet's destination to make packet forwarding decisions. GPSR makes greedy forwarding decisions using only information about a router's immediate neighbors in the network topology. When a packet reaches a region where greedy forwarding is impossible, the algorithm recovers by routing around the perimeter of the region. By keeping state only about the local topology, GPSR scales better in per-router state than shortest-path and ad-hoc routing protocols as the number of network destinations increases. Under mobility's frequent topology changes, GPSR can use local topology information to find correct new routes quickly. We describe the GPSR protocol, and use extensive simulation of mobile wireless networks to compare its performance with that of Dynamic Source Routing. Our simulations demonstrate GPSR's scalability on densely deployed wireless networks.

7,384 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1994
TL;DR: The modifications address some of the previous objections to the use of Bellman-Ford, related to the poor looping properties of such algorithms in the face of broken links and the resulting time dependent nature of the interconnection topology describing the links between the Mobile hosts.
Abstract: An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of Mobile Hosts without the required intervention of any centralized Access Point. In this paper we present an innovative design for the operation of such ad-hoc networks. The basic idea of the design is to operate each Mobile Host as a specialized router, which periodically advertises its view of the interconnection topology with other Mobile Hosts within the network. This amounts to a new sort of routing protocol. We have investigated modifications to the basic Bellman-Ford routing mechanisms, as specified by RIP [5], to make it suitable for a dynamic and self-starting network mechanism as is required by users wishing to utilize ad hoc networks. Our modifications address some of the previous objections to the use of Bellman-Ford, related to the poor looping properties of such algorithms in the face of broken links and the resulting time dependent nature of the interconnection topology describing the links between the Mobile Hosts. Finally, we describe the ways in which the basic network-layer routing can be modified to provide MAC-layer support for ad-hoc networks.

6,877 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 May 2003
TL;DR: This work proposes security goals for routing in sensor networks, shows how attacks against ad-hoc and peer-to-peer networks can be adapted into powerful attacks against sensors, and introduces two classes of novel attacks against sensor networks sinkholes and HELLO floods.
Abstract: We consider routing security in wireless sensor networks. Many sensor network routing protocols have been proposed, but none of them have been designed with security as a goal. We propose security goals for routing in sensor networks, show how attacks against ad-hoc and peer-to-peer networks can be adapted into powerful attacks against sensor networks, introduce two classes of novel attacks against sensor networks sinkholes and HELLO floods, and analyze the security of all the major sensor network routing protocols. We describe crippling attacks against all of them and suggest countermeasures and design considerations. This is the first such analysis of secure routing in sensor networks.

2,946 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Aug 2005
TL;DR: A new routing scheme, called Spray and Wait, that "sprays" a number of copies into the network, and then "waits" till one of these nodes meets the destination, which outperforms all existing schemes with respect to both average message delivery delay and number of transmissions per message delivered.
Abstract: Intermittently connected mobile networks are sparse wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a complete path from the source to the destination. These networks fall into the general category of Delay Tolerant Networks. There are many real networks that follow this paradigm, for example, wildlife tracking sensor networks, military networks, inter-planetary networks, etc. In this context, conventional routing schemes would fail.To deal with such networks researchers have suggested to use flooding-based routing schemes. While flooding-based schemes have a high probability of delivery, they waste a lot of energy and suffer from severe contention, which can significantly degrade their performance. Furthermore, proposed efforts to significantly reduce the overhead of flooding-based schemes have often be plagued by large delays. With this in mind, we introduce a new routing scheme, called Spray and Wait, that "sprays" a number of copies into the network, and then "waits" till one of these nodes meets the destination.Using theory and simulations we show that Spray and Wait outperforms all existing schemes with respect to both average message delivery delay and number of transmissions per message delivered; its overall performance is close to the optimal scheme. Furthermore, it is highly scalable retaining good performance under a large range of scenarios, unlike other schemes. Finally, it is simple to implement and to optimize in order to achieve given performance goals in practice.

2,712 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
26 Sep 2004
TL;DR: A new metric for routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless networks with stationary nodes called Weighted Cumulative ETT (WCETT) significantly outperforms previously-proposed routing metrics by making judicious use of the second radio.
Abstract: We present a new metric for routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless networks. We focus on wireless networks with stationary nodes, such as community wireless networks.The goal of the metric is to choose a high-throughput path between a source and a destination. Our metric assigns weights to individual links based on the Expected Transmission Time (ETT) of a packet over the link. The ETT is a function of the loss rate and the bandwidth of the link. The individual link weights are combined into a path metric called Weighted Cumulative ETT (WCETT) that explicitly accounts for the interference among links that use the same channel. The WCETT metric is incorporated into a routing protocol that we call Multi-Radio Link-Quality Source Routing.We studied the performance of our metric by implementing it in a wireless testbed consisting of 23 nodes, each equipped with two 802.11 wireless cards. We find that in a multi-radio environment, our metric significantly outperforms previously-proposed routing metrics by making judicious use of the second radio.

2,633 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202330
202286
202133
202037
201952
201890