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Geomagnetic pole

About: Geomagnetic pole is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1013 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 29805 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Radiocarbon ages have been published for nine basaltic lava flows on the island of Hawaii; the ages range from 2600 to somewhat older than 17,900 years B.P. By using the Thelliers' method in vacuum, geomagnetic paleointensity values were obtained from eight of the lavas; the ninth proved unsuitable. The paleointensities for the four youngest flows (2600–4600 years B.P.) yield virtual dipole moments (VDM's) that are 20% greater to more than twice the worldwide values for those times obtained by V. Bucha from archeomagnetic data. The dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles for the eight lavas is 15.5°, appreciably larger than the average for older lava flows on Hawaii. These results contrast with the historic magnetic field in the region of Hawaii, in which both secular variation and nondipole components are very low. At about 10,000 years B.P. the measured VDM is not very different from the long-term worldwide average but differs considerably from a smooth extrapolation of Bucha's average curve. At about 18,000 years B.P. the measured VDM is very low and is associated with an unusually shallow paleomagnetic inclination for the latitude of Hawaii. These new paleointensity and paleodirectional data strongly suggest that sizable nondipole geomagnetic fields have existed in the vicinity of Hawaii at various times during the Holocene epoch and perhaps earlier.

677 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The disturbance field caused by charged particles trapped in the earth's magnetosphere is fairly uniform near the earth. Its value at the earth's center, ΔHz(0), which can be calculated easily, is therefore a good approximation for the field at the surface. Several years ago, Dessler and Parker derived for two special pitch-angle distributions of particles the simple relation ΔHz(0) = -2E/3Em between ΔHz(0) and the total energy of the particles, E. (H0 and Em are constants denoting the horizontal component of the main field at the earth's equator and the total energy of the main field external to the earth, respectively.) It is shown in this paper that this relation is applicable for any steady configuration of trapped particles, regardless of their pitch-angle distribution.

501 citations

Book ChapterDOI
Abstract: The assumption that the time-averaged geomagnetic field closely approximates that of a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) is valid for at least the last 5 million years and most paleomagnetic studies make this implicit assumption. Inclination anomalies observed in several recent studies have called the essential GAD nature of the ancient geomagnetic field into question, calling on large (up to 20%) contributions of the axial octupolar term to the geocentric axial dipole in the spherical harmonic expansion to explain shallow inclinations for even the Miocene. In this paper, we develop a simplified statistical model for paleosecular variation (PSV) of the geomagnetic field that can be used to predict paleomagnetic observables. The model predicts that virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) distributions are circularly symmetric, implying that the associated directions are not, particularly at lower latitudes. Elongation of directions is North-South and varies smoothly as a function of latitude (and inclination). We use the model to characterize distributions expected from PSV to distinguish between directional anomalies resulting from sedimentary inclination error and from non-zero non-dipole terms, in particular a persistent axial octupole term. We develop methodologies to correct the shallow bias resulting from sedimentary inclination error. Application to a study of Oligo-Miocene redbeds in central Asia confirms that the reported discrepancies from a GAD field in this region are most probably due to sedimentary inclination error rather than a non-GAD field geometry or undetected crustal shortening. Although non-GAD fields can be imagined that explain the data equally well, the principle of least astonishment requires us to consider plausible mechanisms such as sedimentary inclination error as the cause of persistent shallow bias before resorting to the very expensive option of throwing out the GAD hypothesis.

425 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Free hydromagnetic oscillations of a rotating spherical shell of an incompressible fluid are investigated by means of a simple theoretical model For each spatial harmonic, rotation gives rise to two distinct modes of oscillation, ‘magnetic’ and ‘inertial’, which propagate with different velocities As an application of the theory, it is shown that if the strength of the toroidal magnetic field in the Earth’s core is 100 Oe, then many of the properties of the observed secular changes, including the slow westward drift, of the main geomagnetic field at the Earth’s surface can be accounted for in terms of the interaction of magnetic modes in the core with the Earth’s poloidal magnetic field Concomitant magnetic variations due to inertial modes in the core would, owing to their relatively short periods (several days), fail to penetrate to the surface of the Earth, although the eddy currents induced in the lower mantle by these modes might affect the mechanical coupling between the mantle and the core

339 citations

14 Aug 1998
Abstract: History of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism: Discovery of the Main Magnetic Elements. Fossil Magnetism and the Magnetic Field in the Past. Investigations of the External Magnetic Field. Origin of the Earth's Magnetic Field. The Present Geomagnetic Field: Analysis and Description from Historical Observations: Magnetic Elements and Charts. Spherical Harmonic Description of the Earth's Magnetic Field. Uniqueness and Other Mathematical Problems. Geomagnetic Secular Variation. The External Magnetic Field. Foundations of Paleomagnetism: Rock Magnetism. Magnetic Mineralogy. Paleomagnetic Directions and Poles. Paleointensity Methods. Age Determinations. The Recent Geomagnetic Field: Paleomagnetic Observations: Archeomagnetic Results. Analysis of Recent Lake Sediments. Geomagnetic Excursions. The Geomagnetic Power Spectrum. Reversals of the Earth's Magnetic Field: Evidence for Field Reversal. Marine Magnetic Anomalies. Analysis of Reversal Sequences. Polarity Transitions. The Time-Averaged Paleomagnetic Field: Geocentric Axial Dipole Hypothesis. Second-Order Terms. Variation in the Earth's Dipole Moment. Paleosecular Variation from Lavas (PSVL). Processes and Properties of the Earth's Deep Interior: Basic Principles: Seismic Properties of the Earth's Interior. Chemical and Physical Properties. Thermodynamic Properties of the Earth's Deep Interior. Thermal History Models. Non-dynamo Models for the Earth's Magnetic Field. Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals. Energy Sources. Introduction to Dynamo Theory: The Dynamo Problem. The Magnetic Induction Equation. The a and w Effects of Dynamo Theory. Waves in Dynamo Theory. Symmetries in Dynamo Theory. Theories for Geomagnetic Secular Variations and magnetic Field Reversals. Dynamo Theory: Vector Spherical Harmonics. Kinematic Dynamos. Cowling's Theorem and Other Constraints. Turbulence in the Core. Dynamo Waves. Dynamics of the Geodynamo. The Magnetic Fields of the Sun, Moon, and Planets: Origin of the Solar System. The Sun. The Moon. Meteorites. Magnetic Fields of the Planets. Geomagnetic Relevance. Examples of Synthesis: Fluid Velocities in the Core. Core-Mantle Coupling: Length of Day. Paleomagnetism and Dynamo Theory. Variations at the Core-Mantle Boundary and the Earth's Surface. Appendices. References. Subject Index.

322 citations

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