About: Geomagnetic storm is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7720 publications have been published within this topic receiving 185523 citations. The topic is also known as: magnetic storm & solar storm.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, an attempt is made to define a geomagnetic storm as an interval of time when a sufficiently intense and long-lasting interplanetary convection electric field leads, through a substantial energization in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, to an intensified ring current sufficiently strong to exceed some key threshold of the quantifying storm time Dst index.
Abstract: After a brief review of magnetospheric and interplanetary phenomena for intervals with enhanced solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, an attempt is made to define a geomagnetic storm as an interval of time when a sufficiently intense and long-lasting interplanetary convection electric field leads, through a substantial energization in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, to an intensified ring current sufficiently strong to exceed some key threshold of the quantifying storm time Dst index. The associated storm/substorm relationship problem is also reviewed. Although the physics of this relationship does not seem to be fully understood at this time, basic and fairly well established mechanisms of this relationship are presented and discussed. Finally, toward the advancement of geomagnetic storm research, some recommendations are given concerning future improvements in monitoring existing geomagnetic indices as well as the solar wind near Earth.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the low-energy electron population in the magnetosphere within the local time range ∼17 to ∼22 hours using the OGO 1 satellite and OGO 3.
Abstract: Observations of electrons of energy 125 ev to ∼2 kev with the OGO 1 satellite and of electrons of energy 40 ev to ∼2 kev with OGO 3 (by means of modulated Faraday cup detectors) are used to investigate the low-energy electron population in the magnetosphere within the local-time range ∼17 to ∼22 hours. Intense fluxes of these electrons are confined to a spatial region, termed the plasma sheet, which is an extension of the magnetotail plasma sheet discovered by the Vela satellites and is identified with the soft electron band first detected by Gringauz. The plasma sheet extends over the entire local-time range studied in this investigation, from the magnetospheric tail past the dusk meridian toward the dayside magnetosphere. In latitude it is confined to within 4–6 RE of the geomagnetic and/or solar magnetospheric equatorial plane, in agreement with observations already reported from the Vela satellites; no electron fluxes are detected high above the equator, not even very near the magnetopause. In radial distance the plasma sheet is terminated by the magnetopause on the outside and by a well-defined sharp inner boundary on the inside. The inner boundary has been traced from the equatorial region to the highest latitudes investigated, ∼40°; during geomagnetically quiet periods, it is observed at an equatorial distance of 11 ± 1 RE and appears to extend to higher latitudes along magnetic field lines. Weak or no electron fluxes are found between the inner boundary of the plasma sheet and the outer boundary of the plasmasphere. Detection (by an indirect process) of the very high ion densities within the plasmasphere gives positions for its boundary in good agreement with other determinations. During periods of magnetic bay activity, the plasma sheet extends closer to the earth; the inner boundary of the plasma sheet is then found at equatorial distances of 6–8 RE. This is most simply interpreted as the result of an actual inward motion of the plasma during a bay. In one case, it was possible to associate the beginning of this motion with the onset of the bay and to estimate an average radial speed of ∼12 km/sec, from which an electric field corresponding to ∼48 kilovolts across the magnetospheric tail was inferred. Within the plasma sheet, the electron population is characterized by number densities from 0.3 to 30 cm−3 and mean energies from 50 to 1600 ev and higher, with a strong anticorrelation between density and mean energy, so that the electron energy density (∼1 kev cm−3) and energy flux (∼3 ergs cm−2 sec−1) show relatively little variation. The lower energies and higher densities tend to occur during periods of geomagnetic disturbance. The nonobservation of electrons in regions above the plasma sheet implies an upper limit on the electron number density of 5 × 10−2 cm−3 if their mean energy is assumed to be ∼50 ev (typical of the magnetosheath) and 10−2 cm−3 if the energy is ∼1 kev (typical of the plasma sheet). At the inner boundary of the plasma sheet there is a sharp softening of the electron spectrum with decreasing radial distance but apparently little change in the electron number density. The electron energy density decreases across the inner boundary roughly as ∼exp (distance/0.4 RE) during quiet periods; during times of magnetic bay activity the energy density decreases as ∼exp (distance/0.6 RE), and there is a more complicated spatial structure of density and mean energy.
TL;DR: In this article, the occurrence at high latitudes of a large number of geophysical phenomena, including geomagnetic agitation and bay disturbances, aurorae, and various irregular distri...
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the occurrence at high latitudes of a large number of geophysical phenomena, including geomagnetic agitation and bay disturbances, aurorae, and various irregular distri...
TL;DR: In this article, an algorithm is presented for predicting the ground-based Dst index solely from a knowledge of the velocity and density of the solar wind and the north-south solar magnetospheric component of the interplanetary magnetic field.
Abstract: An algorithm is presented for predicting the ground-based Dst index solely from a knowledge of the velocity and density of the solar wind and the north-south solar magnetospheric component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The three key elements of this model are an adjustment for solar wind dynamic pressure, an injection rate linearly proportional to the dawn-to-dusk component of the interplanetary electric field which is zero for electric fields below 0.5 mV m−1, and an exponential decay rate of the ring current with an e folding time of 7.7 hours. The algorithm is used to predict the Dst signature of seven geomagnetic storm intervals in 1967 and 1968. In addition to being quite successful, considering the simplicity of the model, the algorithm pinpoints the causes of various types of storm behavior. A main phase is initiated whenever the dawn-to-dusk solar magnetospheric component of the interplanetary electric field becomes large and positive. It is preceded by an initial phase of increased Dst if the solar wind dynamic pressure increases suddenly prior to the main phase. The recovery phase is initiated when the injection rate governed by the interplanetary electric field drops below the ring current decay rate associated with the ring current strength built up during the main phase. Variable recovery rates are generally due to additional injection during the recovery phase. This one algorithm accounts for magnetospheric behavior at quiet and at disturbed times and seems capable of predicting the behavior of Dst during even the largest of storms.
TL;DR: Tsyganenko et al. as discussed by the authors developed a dynamical model of the storm-time geomagnetic field in the inner magnetosphere, using space magnetometer data taken during 37 major events in 1996-2000 and concurrent observations of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).
Abstract:  This work builds on and extends our previous effort (Tsyganenko et al, 2003) to develop a dynamical model of the storm-time geomagnetic field in the inner magnetosphere, using space magnetometer data taken during 37 major events in 1996–2000 and concurrent observations of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) The essence of the approach is to derive from the data the temporal variation of all major current systems contributing to the distant geomagnetic field during the entire storm cycle, using a simple model of their growth and decay Each principal source of the external magnetic field (magnetopause, cross-tail current sheet, axisymmetric and partial ring currents, and Birkeland current systems) is driven by a separate variable, calculated as a time integral of a combination of geoeffective parameters NλVβBsγ, where N, V, and Bs are the solar wind density, speed, and the magnitude of the southward component of the IMF, respectively In this approach we assume that each source has its individual relaxation timescale and residual quiet-time strength, and its partial contribution to the total field depends on the entire history of the external driving of the magnetosphere during a storm In addition, the magnitudes of the principal field sources were assumed to saturate during extremely large storms with abnormally strong external driving All the parameters of the model field sources, including their magnitudes, geometrical characteristics, solar wind/IMF driving functions, decay timescales, and saturation thresholds, were treated as free variables, and their values were derived from the data As an independent consistency test, we calculated the expected Dst variation on the basis of the model output at Earth's surface and compared it with the actual observed Dst A good agreement (cumulative correlation coefficient R = 092) was found, in spite of the fact that ∼90% of the spacecraft data used in the fitting were taken at synchronous orbit and beyond, while only 37% of those data came from distances 25 ≤ R ≤ 4 RE The obtained results demonstrate the possibility to develop a truly dynamical model of the magnetic field, based on magnetospheric and interplanetary data and allowing one to reproduce and forecast the entire process of a geomagnetic storm, as it unfolds in time and space
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