Topic

# Geometric phase

About: Geometric phase is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4202 publications have been published within this topic receiving 112542 citations. The topic is also known as: Berry Phase & Pancharatnam-Berry phase.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of Graphene is presented, where an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene is observed.

Abstract: When electrons are confined in two-dimensional materials, quantum-mechanically enhanced transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect can be observed. Graphene, consisting of an isolated single atomic layer of graphite, is an ideal realization of such a two-dimensional system. However, its behaviour is expected to differ markedly from the well-studied case of quantum wells in conventional semiconductor interfaces. This difference arises from the unique electronic properties of graphene, which exhibits electron–hole degeneracy and vanishing carrier mass near the point of charge neutrality1,2. Indeed, a distinctive half-integer quantum Hall effect has been predicted3,4,5 theoretically, as has the existence of a non-zero Berry's phase (a geometric quantum phase) of the electron wavefunction—a consequence of the exceptional topology of the graphene band structure6,7. Recent advances in micromechanical extraction and fabrication techniques for graphite structures8,9,10,11,12 now permit such exotic two-dimensional electron systems to be probed experimentally. Here we report an experimental investigation of magneto-transport in a high-mobility single layer of graphene. Adjusting the chemical potential with the use of the electric field effect, we observe an unusual half-integer quantum Hall effect for both electron and hole carriers in graphene. The relevance of Berry's phase to these experiments is confirmed by magneto-oscillations. In addition to their purely scientific interest, these unusual quantum transport phenomena may lead to new applications in carbon-based electronic and magneto-electronic devices.

10,417 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the Aharonov-Bohm effect can be interpreted as a geometrical phase factor and a general formula for γ(C) was derived in terms of the spectrum and eigen states of the Hamiltonian over a surface spanning C.

Abstract: A quantal system in an eigenstate, slowly transported round a circuit C by varying parameters R in its Hamiltonian Ĥ(R), will acquire a geometrical phase factor exp{iγ(C)} in addition to the familiar dynamical phase factor. An explicit general formula for γ(C) is derived in terms of the spectrum and eigenstates of Ĥ(R) over a surface spanning C. If C lies near a degeneracy of Ĥ, γ(C) takes a simple form which includes as a special case the sign change of eigenfunctions of real symmetric matrices round a degeneracy. As an illustration γ(C) is calculated for spinning particles in slowly-changing magnetic fields; although the sign reversal of spinors on rotation is a special case, the effect is predicted to occur for bosons as well as fermions, and a method for observing it is proposed. It is shown that the Aharonov-Bohm effect can be interpreted as a geometrical phase factor.

6,612 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed review of the role of the Berry phase effect in various solid state applications is presented. And a requantization method that converts a semiclassical theory to an effective quantum theory is demonstrated.

Abstract: Ever since its discovery, the Berry phase has permeated through all branches of physics. Over the last three decades, it was gradually realized that the Berry phase of the electronic wave function can have a profound effect on material properties and is responsible for a spectrum of phenomena, such as ferroelectricity, orbital magnetism, various (quantum/anomalous/spin) Hall effects, and quantum charge pumping. This progress is summarized in a pedagogical manner in this review. We start with a brief summary of necessary background, followed by a detailed discussion of the Berry phase effect in a variety of solid state applications. A common thread of the review is the semiclassical formulation of electron dynamics, which is a versatile tool in the study of electron dynamics in the presence of electromagnetic fields and more general perturbations. Finally, we demonstrate a re-quantization method that converts a semiclassical theory to an effective quantum theory. It is clear that the Berry phase should be added as a basic ingredient to our understanding of basic material properties.

2,671 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: A new geometric phase factor is defined for any cyclic evolution of a quantum system, independent of the phase factor relating the initial and final state vectors and the Hamiltonian, for a given projection of the evolution on the projective space of rays of the Hilbert space.

Abstract: A new geometric phase factor is defined for any cyclic evolution of a quantum system. This is independent of the phase factor relating the initial and final state vectors and the Hamiltonian, for a given projection of the evolution on the projective space of rays of the Hilbert space. Some applications, including the Aharonov-Bohm effect, are considered. For the special case of adiabatic evolution, this phase factor is a gauge-invariant generalization of the one found by Berry.

1,665 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, King-Smith and Vanderbilt developed a complete theory in which the polarization difference between any two crystal states in a null electric field takes the form of a geometric quantum phase.

Abstract: The macroscopic electric polarization of a crystal is often defined as the dipole of a unit cell. In fact, such a dipole moment is ill defined, and the above definition is incorrect. Looking more closely, the quantity generally measured is differential polarization, defined with respect to a "reference state" of the same material. Such differential polarizations include either derivatives of the polarization (dielectric permittivity, Born effective charges, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity) or finite differences (ferroelectricity). On the theoretical side, the differential concept is basic as well. Owing to continuity, a polarization difference is equivalent to a macroscopic current, which is directly accessible to the theory as a bulk property. Polarization is a quantum phenomenon and cannot be treated with a classical model, particularly whenever delocalized valence electrons are present in the dielectric. In a quantum picture, the current is basically a property of the phase of the wave functions, as opposed to the charge, which is a property of their modulus. An elegant and complete theory has recently been developed by King-Smith and Vanderbilt, in which the polarization difference between any two crystal states---in a null electric field---takes the form of a geometric quantum phase. The author gives a comprehensive account of this theory, which is relevant for dealing with transverse-optic phonons, piezoelectricity, and ferroelectricity. Its relation to the established concepts of linear-response theory is also discussed. Within the geometric phase approach, the relevant polarization difference occurs as the circuit integral of a Berry connection (or "vector potential"), while the corresponding curvature (or "magnetic field") provides the macroscopic linear response.

1,630 citations