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Geothermal desalination

About: Geothermal desalination is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1536 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 46891 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
05 Aug 2011-Science
TL;DR: The possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater Desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages are reviewed.

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Abstract: In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale seawater desalination plants. Here, we review the possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages.

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3,777 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2009-Water Research
TL;DR: Key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics are brought to light by a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems.

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Abstract: Reverse osmosis membrane technology has developed over the past 40 years to a 44% share in world desalting production capacity, and an 80% share in the total number of desalination plants installed worldwide. The use of membrane desalination has increased as materials have improved and costs have decreased. Today, reverse osmosis membranes are the leading technology for new desalination installations, and they are applied to a variety of salt water resources using tailored pretreatment and membrane system design. Two distinct branches of reverse osmosis desalination have emerged: seawater reverse osmosis and brackish water reverse osmosis. Differences between the two water sources, including foulants, salinity, waste brine (concentrate) disposal options, and plant location, have created significant differences in process development, implementation, and key technical problems. Pretreatment options are similar for both types of reverse osmosis and depend on the specific components of the water source. Both brackish water and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) will continue to be used worldwide; new technology in energy recovery and renewable energy, as well as innovative plant design, will allow greater use of desalination for inland and rural communities, while providing more affordable water for large coastal cities. A wide variety of research and general information on RO desalination is available; however, a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems is necessary to highlight similarities and differences in process development. This article brings to light key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics.

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2,296 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
05 Oct 2007-Desalination
Abstract: Throughout the world, water scarcity is being recognised as a present or future threat to human activity and as a consequence, a definite trend to develop alternative water resources such as desalination can be observed. The most commonly used desalination technologies are reverse osmosis (RO) and thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED). In Europe, reverse osmosis, due to its lower energy consumption has gained much wider acceptance than its thermal alternatives. This review summarises the current state-of-the art of reverse osmosis desalination, dealing not only with the reverse osmosis stage, but with the entire process from raw water intake to post treatment of product water. The discussion of process fundamentals, membranes and membrane modules and of current and future developments in membrane technology is accompanied by an analysis of operational issues as fouling and scaling and of measures for their prevention such as adequate cleaning procedures and antiscalant use. Special focus is placed on pre-treatment of raw water and post-treatment of brine as well as of product water to meet drinking and irrigation water standards, including evaluation of current boron removal options. Energy requirements of reverse osmosis plants as well as currently applied energy recovery systems for reduction of energy consumption are described and cost and cost structure of reverse osmosis desalination are outlined. Finally, current practices of waste management and disposal as well as new trends such as the use of hybrid plants, i.e. combining reverse osmosis with thermal processes and/or power generation are addressed.

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1,505 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2008-Desalination
Abstract: A number of seawater desalination technologies have been developed during the last several decades to augment the supply of water in arid regions of the world. Due to the constraints of high desalination costs, many countries are unable to afford these technologies as a fresh water resource. However, the steady increasing usage of seawater desalination has demonstrated that seawater desalination is a feasible water resource free from the variations in rainfall. A seawater desalination process separates saline seawater into two streams: a fresh water stream containing a low concentration of dissolved salts and a concentrated brine stream. The process requires some form of energy to desalinate, and utilizes several different technologies for separation. Two of the most commercially important technologies are based on the multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. Although the desalination technologies are mature enough to be a reliable source for fresh water from the sea, a significant amount of research and development (R&D) has been carried out in order to constantly improve the technologies and reduce the cost of desalination. This paper reviews the current status, practices, and advances that have been made in the realm of seawater desalination technologies. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of R&D activities and outlines future prospects for the state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies. Overall, the present review is made with special emphasis on the MSF and RO desalination technologies because they are the most successful processes for the commercial production of large quantities of fresh water from seawater.

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1,025 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Soteris A. Kalogirou1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The origin and continuation of mankind is based on water. Water is one of the most abundant resources on earth, covering three-fourths of the planet's surface. However, about 97% of the earth's water is salt water in the oceans, and a tiny 3% is fresh water. This small percentage of the earth's water—which supplies most of human and animal needs—exists in ground water, lakes and rivers. The only nearly inexhaustible sources of water are the oceans, which, however, are of high salinity. It would be feasible to address the water-shortage problem with seawater desalination; however, the separation of salts from seawater requires large amounts of energy which, when produced from fossil fuels, can cause harm to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to employ environmentally-friendly energy sources in order to desalinate seawater. After a historical introduction into desalination, this paper covers a large variety of systems used to convert seawater into fresh water suitable for human use. It also covers a variety of systems, which can be used to harness renewable energy sources; these include solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar ponds and geothermal energy. Both direct and indirect collection systems are included. The representative example of direct collection systems is the solar still. Indirect collection systems employ two sub-systems; one for the collection of renewable energy and one for desalination. For this purpose, standard renewable energy and desalination systems are most often employed. Only industrially-tested desalination systems are included in this paper and they comprise the phase change processes, which include the multistage flash, multiple effect boiling and vapour compression and membrane processes, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. The paper also includes a review of various systems that use renewable energy sources for desalination. Finally, some general guidelines are given for selection of desalination and renewable energy systems and the parameters that need to be considered.

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822 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Desalination

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Forward osmosis

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Electrodialysis reversal

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Membrane technology

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20211
20193
201816
2017101
2016109
2015114

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

John H. Lienhard

9 papers, 513 citations

Jamel Belhadj

8 papers, 118 citations

P.K. Tewari

7 papers, 15 citations

Raphael Semiat

5 papers, 306 citations

Syed M. Zubair

5 papers, 339 citations