About: Gestalt psychology is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2986 publications have been published within this topic receiving 69597 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: For instance, the study of mind has focused principally on how man achieves a "true" knowledge of the world as discussed by the authors, that is, how we get a reliable fix on the world, a world that is assumed to be immutable and, as it were, there to be observed.
Abstract: Surely since the Enlightenment, if not before, the study of mind has centered principally on how man achieves a "true" knowledge of the world. Emphasis in this pursuit has varied, of course: empiricists have concentrated on the mind's interplay with an external world of nature, hoping to find the key in the association of sensations and ideas, while rationalists have looked inward to the powers of mind itself for the principles of right reason. The objective, in either case, has been to discover how we achieve "reality," that is to say, how we get a reliable fix on the world, a world that is, as it were, assumed to be immutable and, as it were, "there to be observed." This quest has, of course, had a profound effect on the development of psychology, and the empiricist and rationalist traditions have dominated our conceptions of how the mind grows and how it gets its grasp on the "real world." Indeed, at midcentury Gestalt theory represented the rationalist wing of this enterprise and American learning theory the empiricist. Both gave accounts of mental development as proceeding in some more or less linear and uniform fashion from an initial incompetence in grasping reality to a final competence, in one case attributing it to the working out of internal processes or mental organization, and in the other to some unspecified principle of reflection by which—whether through reinforcement, association, or conditioning—we came to respond to the world "as it is." There have always been dissidents who
TL;DR: In this article, a family of theoretical perspectives associated with this metatheoretical view of life-span developmental psychology includes the recognition of multidirectionality in ontogenetic change, consideration of both age-connected and disconnected developmental factors, a focus on the dynamic and continuous interplay between growth (gain) and decline (loss), emphasis on historical embeddedness and other structural contextual factors, and the study of the range of plasticity in development.
Abstract: Life-span developmental psychology involves the study of constancy and change in behavior throughout the life course. One aspect of life-span research has been the advancement of a more general, metatheoretical view on the nature of development. The family of theoretical perspectives associated with this metatheoretical view of life-span developmental psychology includes the recognition of multidirectionality in ontogenetic change, consideration of both age-connected and disconnected developmental factors, a focus on the dynamic and continuous interplay between growth (gain) and decline (loss), emphasis on historical embeddedness and other structural contextual factors, and the study of the range of plasticity in development. Application of the family of perspectives associated with life-span developmental psychology is illustrated for the domain of intellectual development. Two recently emerging perspectives of the family of beliefs are given particular attention. The first proposition is methodological and suggests that plasticity can best be studied with a research strategy called testing-the-limits. The second proposition is theoretical and proffers that any developmental change includes the joint occurrence of gain (growth) and loss (decline) in adaptive capacity. To assess the pattern of positive (gains) and negative (losses) consequences resulting from development, it is necessary to know the criterion demands posed by the individual and the environment during the lifelong process of adaptation. The study of life-span development is not a homogeneous field. It comes in two major interrelated modes. The first mode is the extension of developmental studies across the life course without a major effort at the construction of metatheory that emanates from life-span work. The second mode includes the endeavor to explore whether life-span research has specific implications for the general nature of developmental theory. The second approach represents the topic of this article. Specifically, the purpose of this article is twofold. First, after a brief introduction to the field of life-span developmental psychology, some "prototypical" features of the life-span approach in developmental psychology are presented. Second, these features are illustrated by work in one domain: intellectual development. Although the focus of this paper is on life-span developmental psychology and its theoretical thrust, it is important to recognize at the outset that similar perspectives on developmental theory have been advanced in other quarters of developmental scholarship as well (Hetherington & Baltes, in press; Scan; 1986). There is, however, a major difference in the "gestalt" in which the features of the theoretical perspective of life-span psychology are organized.
TL;DR: A family of graph-theoretical algorithms based on the minimal spanning tree are capable of detecting several kinds of cluster structure in arbitrary point sets; description of the detected clusters is possible in some cases by extensions of the method.
Abstract: A family of graph-theoretical algorithms based on the minimal spanning tree are capable of detecting several kinds of cluster structure in arbitrary point sets; description of the detected clusters is possible in some cases by extensions of the method. Development of these clustering algorithms was based on examples from two-dimensional space because we wanted to copy the human perception of gestalts or point groupings. On the other hand, all the methods considered apply to higher dimensional spaces and even to general metric spaces. Advantages of these methods include determinacy, easy interpretation of the resulting clusters, conformity to gestalt principles of perceptual organization, and invariance of results under monotone transformations of interpoint distance. Brief discussion is made of the application of cluster detection to taxonomy and the selection of good feature spaces for pattern recognition. Detailed analyses of several planar cluster detection problems are illustrated by text and figures. The well-known Fisher iris data, in four-dimensional space, have been analyzed by these methods also. PL/1 programs to implement the minimal spanning tree methods have been fully debugged.
TL;DR: The authors showed that two judgments that concern the same object can be made simultaneously without loss of accuracy, whereas two judgment that concern different objects cannot, neither the similarity nor the difficulty of required discriminations, nor the spatial distribution of information, could account for the results.
Abstract: Medical Research Council, Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England Theories of visual attention deal with the limit on our ability to see (and later report) several things at once. These theories fall into three broad classes. Objectbased theories propose a limit on the number of separate objects :that can be perceived simultaneously. Discrimination-based theories propose a limit on the number of separate discriminations that can be made. Space-based theories propose a limit on the spatial area from which information can be taken up. To distinguish these views, the present experiments used small (< 1 °), brief, foveal displays, each consisting of two overlapping objects (a box with a line struck through it). It was found that two judgments that concern the same object can be made simultaneously without loss of accuracy, whereas two judgments that concern different objects cannot. Neither the similarity nor the difficulty of required discriminations, nor the spatial distribution of information, could account for the results. The experiments support a view in which parallel, preattentive processes serve to segment the field into separate objects, followed by a pfocess of focal attention that deals with only one object at a time. This view is also able to account for results taken to support both discrimination-based and space-based theories. Object-Based Theories of Visual Attention Theories of visual attention are concerned with the limit on our ability to see (and later report) several things at once. This article deals with what I call object-based theories (e.g., Neisser, 1967), which propose that this limit concerns the number of separate objects that can be seen. Here some predictions of this view are tested, and object-based theories are contrasted with discrimination-based theories (e.g., Allport, 1971, 1980) and with spaced-based theories (e.g., Hoffman & Nelson, 1981; Posner, Snyder, & Davidson, 1980). The work of Neisser (1967) illustrates the object-based approach. Neisser (1967) proposed that perceptual analysis of the visual world takes place in two successive stages. The first, preattentive, stage segments the field into separate objects on the basis of such Gestalt properties as spatial proximity, continuity of contour, shared color or movement, and so on. The second stage, focal attention, analyzes a particular object in more detail. Neisser (1967) supposed that, whereas preat
01 Jan 1938
TL;DR: Theoretically I might say there were 327 brightnesses and nuances of colour, and do I have "327"? No. It is impossible to achieve "327 " as such.
Abstract: Theoretically I might say there were 327 brightnesses and nuances of colour. Do I have "327"? No. I have sky, house, and trees. It is impossible to achieve "327 " as such. And yet even though such droll calculation were possible and implied, say, for the house 120, the trees 90, the sky 117 -I should at least have this arrangement and division of the total, and not, say, 127 and 100 and 100; or 150 and 177.