Topic

# Gibbs free energy

About: Gibbs free energy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15765 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 362022 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Gibbs energy & Gibbs function.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new equation based on Scott's two-liquid model and on an assumption of nonrandomness similar to that used by Wilson is derived, which gives an excellent representation of many types of liquid mixtures.

Abstract: A critical discussion is given of the use of local compositions for representation of excess Gibbs energies of liquid mixtures. A new equation is derived, based on Scott's two-liquid model and on an assumption of nonrandomness similar to that used by Wilson. For the same activity coefficients at infinite dilution, the Gibbs energy of mixing is calculated with the new equation as well as the equations of van Laar, Wilson, and Heil; these four equations give similar results for mixtures of moderate nonideality but they differ appreciably for strongly nonideal systems, especially for those with limited miscibility. The new equation contains a nonrandomness parameter α12 which makes it applicable to a large variety of mixtures. By proper selection of α12, the new equation gives an excellent representation of many types of liquid mixtures while other local composition equations appear to be limited to specific types. Consideration is given to prediction of ternary vapor-liquid and ternary liquid-liquid equilibria based on binary data alone.

5,272 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a mechanism for electron transfer reactions is described, in which there is very little spatial overlap of the electronic orbitals of the two reacting molecules in the activated complex, and a quantitative theory of the rates of oxidation reduction reactions involving electron transfer in solution is presented.

Abstract: A mechanism for electron transfer reactions is described, in which there is very little spatial overlap of the electronic orbitals of the two reacting molecules in the activated complex. Assuming such a mechanism, a quantitative theory of the rates of oxidation‐reduction reactions involving electron transfer in solution is presented. The assumption of "slight‐overlap" is shown to lead to a reaction path which involves an intermediate state X* in which the electrical polarization of the solvent does not have the usual value appropriate for the given ionic charges (i.e., it does not have an equilibrium value). Using an equation developed elsewhere for the electrostatic free energy of nonequilibrium states, the free energy of all possible intermediate states is calculated. The characteristics of the most probable state are then determined with the aid of the calculus of variations by minimizing its free energy subject to certain restraints. A simple expression for the electrostatic contribution to the free energy of formation of the intermediate state from the reactants, ΔF*, is thereby obtained in terms of known quantities, such as ionic radii, charges, and the standard free energy of reaction.
This intermediate state X* can either disappear to reform the reactants, or by an electronic jump mechanism to form a state X in which the ions are characteristic of the products. When the latter process is more probable than the former, the over‐all reaction rate is shown to be simply the rate of formation of the intermediate state, namely the collision number in solution multiplied by exp(—ΔF*/kT). Evidence in favor of this is cited. In a detailed quantitative comparison, given elsewhere, with the kinetic data, no arbitrary parameters are needed to obtain reasonable agreement of calculated and experimental results.

4,904 citations

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TL;DR: The UNIQUAC equation as discussed by the authors is a semi-theoretical equation for the excess Gibbs energy of a liquid mixture, which is generalized through introduction of the local area fraction as the primary concentration variable.

Abstract: To obtain a semi-theoretical equation for the excess Gibbs energy of a liquid mixture, Guggenheim's quasi-chemical analysis is generalized through introduction of the local area fraction as the primary concentration variable. The resulting universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) equation uses only two adjustable parameters per binary. Extension to multicomponent systems requires no ternary (or higher) parameters.
The UNIQUAC equation gives good representation of both vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria for binary and multicomponent mixtures containing a variety of nonelectrolyte components such as hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, amines, alcohols, nitriles, etc., and water. When well-defined simplifying assumptions are introduced into the generalized quasi-chemical treatment, the UNIQUAC equation reduces to any one of several well-known equations for the excess Gibbs energy, including the Wilson, Margules, van Laar, and NRTL equations.
The effects of molecular size and shape are introduced through structural parameters obtained from pure-component data and through use of Staverman's combinatorial entropy as a boundary condition for athermal mixtures. The UNIQUAC equation, therefore, is applicable also to polymer solutions.

3,856 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the data for the condensed phases of 78 elements as currently used by SGTE (Scientific Group Thermodata Europe) as a sound basis for the critical assessment of thermodynamic data, thereby, perhaps, limiting unnecessary duplication of effort.

Abstract: Thermodynamic data for the condensed phases of 78 elements as currently used by SGTE (Scientific Group Thermodata Europe) are tabulated. SGTE is a consortium of seven organisations in Western Europe engaged in the compilation of a comprehensive, self consistent and authoritative thermochemical database for inorganic and metallurgical systems. The data are being published here in the hope that they will become widely adopted within the international community as a sound basis for the critical assessment of thermodynamic data, thereby, perhaps, limiting unnecessary duplication of effort. The data for each phase of each element considered aie presented as expressions showing, as a function of temperature, the variation of (a) G-HSER, the Gibbs energy relative to the enthalpy of the “Standard Element Reference” ie the reference phase for the element at 298.15 K and (b) the difference in Gibbs energy between each phase and this reference phase (ie lattice stability). The variation of the heat capacity of the various phases and the Gibbs energy difference between phases are also shown graphically. For certain elements the thermodynamic data have been assessed as a function of pressure as well as temperature. Where appropriate a temperature— pressure phase diagram is also shown.
Throughout this paper the thermodynamic data are expressed in terms of J mol−1. The temperatures of transition between phases have been assessed to be consistent with the 1990 International Temperature Scale (ITS90).

3,775 citations

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01 Jan 1995

TL;DR: A report about values for the entropy, molar volume, and for the enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation for the elements and minerals and substances at 298.15 K was given in this paper.

Abstract: A report about values for the entropy, molar volume, and for the enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation for the elements and minerals and substances at 298.15 K.

3,459 citations