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Glass transition

About: Glass transition is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 40774 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1002766 citation(s). The topic is also known as: glass–liquid transition.


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Journal ArticleDOI
Akihisa Inoue1
Abstract: Bulk metallic materials have ordinarily been produced by melting and solidification processes for the last several thousand years. However, metallic liquid is unstable at temperatures below the melting temperature and solidifies immediately into crystalline phases. Consequently, all bulk engineering alloys are composed of a crystalline structure. Recently, this common concept was exploded by the findings of the stabilization phenomenon of the supercooled liquid for a number of alloys in the Mg-, lanthanide-, Zr-, Ti-, Fe-, Co-, Pd-Cu- and Ni-based systems. The alloys with the stabilized supercooled liquid state have three features in their alloy components, i.e. multicomponent systems, significant atomic size ratios above 12%, and negative heats of mixing. The stabilization mechanism has also been investigated from experimental data of structure analyses and fundamental physical properties. The stabilization has enabled the pro- duction of bulk amorphous alloys in the thickness range of 1-100 mm by using various casting processes. Bulk amorphous Zr-based alloys exhibit high mechanical strength, high fracture toughness and good cor- rosion resistance and have been used for sporting goods materials. The stabilization also leads to the appearance of a large supercooled liquid region before crystallization and enables high-strain rate super- plasticity through Newtonian flow. The new Fe- and Co-based amorphous alloys exhibit a large super- cooled liquid region and good soft magnetic properties which are characterized by low coercive force and high permeability. Furthermore, homogeneous dispersion of nanoscale particles into Zr-based bulk amor- phous alloys was found to cause an improvement of tensile strength without detriment to good ductility. The discovery of the stabilization phenomenon, followed by the clarification of the stabilization criteria of the supercooled liquid, will promise the future definite development of bulk amorphous alloys as new basic science and engineering materials. # 2000 Acta Metallurgica Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

4,806 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A molecular‐kinetic theory, which explains the temperature dependence of relaxation behavior in glass‐forming liquids in terms of the temperature variation of the size of the cooperatively rearranging region, is presented. The size of this cooperatively rearranging region is shown to be determined by configuration restrictions in these glass‐forming liquids and is expressed in terms of their configurational entropy. The result of the theory is a relation practically coinciding with the empirical WLF equation. Application of the theory to viscosimetric experiments permits evaluation of the ratio of the kinetic glass temperature Tg (derived from usual ``quasistatic'' experiments) to the equilibrium second‐order transition temperature T2 (indicated by either statistical‐mechanical theory or extrapolations of experimental data) as well as the hindrance‐free energy per molecule. These parameters have been evaluated for fifteen substances, the experimental data for which were available. Hindrance‐free energies ...

4,770 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 Mar 1995-Science
TL;DR: The onset of a sharp change in ddT( is the Debye-Waller factor and T is temperature) in proteins, which is controversially indentified with the glass transition in liquids, is shown to be general for glass formers and observable in computer simulations of strong and fragile ionic liquids, where it proves to be close to the experimental glass transition temperature.
Abstract: Glasses can be formed by many routes. In some cases, distinct polyamorphic forms are found. The normal mode of glass formation is cooling of a viscous liquid. Liquid behavior during cooling is classified between "strong" and "fragile," and the three canonical characteristics of relaxing liquids are correlated through the fragility. Strong liquids become fragile liquids on compression. In some cases, such conversions occur during cooling by a weak first-order transition. This behavior can be related to the polymorphism in a glass state through a recent simple modification of the van der Waals model for tetrahedrally bonded liquids. The sudden loss of some liquid degrees of freedom through such first-order transitions is suggestive of the polyamorphic transition between native and denatured hydrated proteins, which can be interpreted as single-chain glass-forming polymers plasticized by water and cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The onset of a sharp change in d dT( is the Debye-Waller factor and T is temperature) in proteins, which is controversially indentified with the glass transition in liquids, is shown to be general for glass formers and observable in computer simulations of strong and fragile ionic liquids, where it proves to be close to the experimental glass transition temperature. The latter may originate in strong anharmonicity in modes ("bosons"), which permits the system to access multiple minima of its configuration space. These modes, the Kauzmann temperature T(K), and the fragility of the liquid, may thus be connected.

3,708 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Mar 2001-Nature
TL;DR: Current theoretical knowledge of the manner in which intermolecular forces give rise to complex behaviour in supercooled liquids and glasses is discussed.
Abstract: Glasses are disordered materials that lack the periodicity of crystals but behave mechanically like solids. The most common way of making a glass is by cooling a viscous liquid fast enough to avoid crystallization. Although this route to the vitreous state-supercooling-has been known for millennia, the molecular processes by which liquids acquire amorphous rigidity upon cooling are not fully understood. Here we discuss current theoretical knowledge of the manner in which intermolecular forces give rise to complex behaviour in supercooled liquids and glasses. An intriguing aspect of this behaviour is the apparent connection between dynamics and thermodynamics. The multidimensional potential energy surface as a function of particle coordinates (the energy landscape) offers a convenient viewpoint for the analysis and interpretation of supercooling and glass-formation phenomena. That much of this analysis is at present largely qualitative reflects the fact that precise computations of how viscous liquids sample their landscape have become possible only recently.

3,354 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A series of hydrophilic and hydrophobic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been prepared and characterized to determine how water content, density, viscosity, surface tension, melting point, and thermal stability are affected by changes in alkyl chain length and anion. In the series of RTILs studied here, the choice of anion determines water miscibility and has the most dramatic effect on the properties. Hydrophilic anions (e.g., chloride and iodide) produce ionic liquids that are miscible in any proportion with water but, upon the removal of some water from the solution, illustrate how sensitive the physical properties are to a change in water content. In comparison, for ionic liquids containing more hydrophobic anions (e.g., PF6− and N(SO2CF3)2−), the removal of water has a smaller affect on the resulting properties. For a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations, increasing the alkyl chain length from butyl to hexyl to octyl increases the hydrophobicity and the viscosities of the ionic liquids increase, whereas densities and surface tension values decrease. Thermal analyses indicate high temperatures are attainable prior to decomposition and DSC studies reveal a glass transition for several samples. ILs incorporating PF6− have been used in liquid/liquid partitioning of organic molecules from water and the results for two of these are also discussed here. On a cautionary note, the chemistry of the individual cations and anions of the ILs should not be overlooked as, in the case of certain conditions for PF6− ILs, contact with an aqueous phase may result in slow hydrolysis of the PF6− with the concomitant release of HF and other species.

3,297 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202233
20211,000
20201,085
20191,187
20181,286
20171,337