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Glioma

About: Glioma is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 24761 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 892050 citation(s). The topic is also known as: glial cell tumor & glioma, malignant.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S00401-016-1545-1
Abstract: The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System is both a conceptual and practical advance over its 2007 predecessor. For the first time, the WHO classification of CNS tumors uses molecular parameters in addition to histology to define many tumor entities, thus formulating a concept for how CNS tumor diagnoses should be structured in the molecular era. As such, the 2016 CNS WHO presents major restructuring of the diffuse gliomas, medulloblastomas and other embryonal tumors, and incorporates new entities that are defined by both histology and molecular features, including glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype and glioblastoma, IDH-mutant; diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27M-mutant; RELA fusion-positive ependymoma; medulloblastoma, WNT-activated and medulloblastoma, SHH-activated; and embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes, C19MC-altered. The 2016 edition has added newly recognized neoplasms, and has deleted some entities, variants and patterns that no longer have diagnostic and/or biological relevance. Other notable changes include the addition of brain invasion as a criterion for atypical meningioma and the introduction of a soft tissue-type grading system for the now combined entity of solitary fibrous tumor / hemangiopericytoma-a departure from the manner by which other CNS tumors are graded. Overall, it is hoped that the 2016 CNS WHO will facilitate clinical, experimental and epidemiological studies that will lead to improvements in the lives of patients with brain tumors.

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Topics: Glioma (52%), Ependymoma (50%)

8,183 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE05236
Shideng Bao1, Qiulian Wu, Roger E. McLendon, Yueling Hao  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
07 Dec 2006-Nature
Abstract: Ionizing radiation represents the most effective therapy for glioblastoma (World Health Organization grade IV glioma), one of the most lethal human malignancies, but radiotherapy remains only palliative because of radioresistance. The mechanisms underlying tumour radioresistance have remained elusive. Here we show that cancer stem cells contribute to glioma radioresistance through preferential activation of the DNA damage checkpoint response and an increase in DNA repair capacity. The fraction of tumour cells expressing CD133 (Prominin-1), a marker for both neural stem cells and brain cancer stem cells, is enriched after radiation in gliomas. In both cell culture and the brains of immunocompromised mice, CD133-expressing glioma cells survive ionizing radiation in increased proportions relative to most tumour cells, which lack CD133. CD133-expressing tumour cells isolated from both human glioma xenografts and primary patient glioblastoma specimens preferentially activate the DNA damage checkpoint in response to radiation, and repair radiation-induced DNA damage more effectively than CD133-negative tumour cells. In addition, the radioresistance of CD133-positive glioma stem cells can be reversed with a specific inhibitor of the Chk1 and Chk2 checkpoint kinases. Our results suggest that CD133-positive tumour cells represent the cellular population that confers glioma radioresistance and could be the source of tumour recurrence after radiation. Targeting DNA damage checkpoint response in cancer stem cells may overcome this radioresistance and provide a therapeutic model for malignant brain cancers.

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Topics: Radioresistance (67%), Cancer stem cell (60%), G2-M DNA damage checkpoint (60%) ...read more

5,242 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA0808710
Hai Yan1, D. Williams Parsons, Genglin Jin1, Roger E. McLendon1  +14 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Background A recent genomewide mutational analysis of glioblastomas (World Health Organization [WHO] grade IV glioma) revealed somatic mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) in a fraction of such tumors, most frequently in tumors that were known to have evolved from lower-grade gliomas (secondary glioblastomas). Methods We determined the sequence of the IDH1 gene and the related IDH2 gene in 445 central nervous system (CNS) tumors and 494 non-CNS tumors. The enzymatic activity of the proteins that were produced from normal and mutant IDH1 and IDH2 genes was determined in cultured glioma cells that were transfected with these genes. Results We identified mutations that affected amino acid 132 of IDH1 in more than 70% of WHO grade II and III astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and in glioblastomas that developed from these lower-grade lesions. Tumors without mutations in IDH1 often had mutations affecting the analogous amino acid (R172) of the IDH2 gene. Tumors with IDH1 or IDH2 mutations h...

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Topics: Enasidenib (58%), Glioma (56%), Oligoastrocytoma (56%) ...read more

4,252 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/359845A0
29 Oct 1992-Nature
Abstract: Clinical and experimental studies suggest that angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumour growth. Several growth factors with mitogenic or chemotactic activity for endothelial cells in vitro have been described, but it is not known whether these mediate tumour vascularization in vivo. Glioblastoma, the most common and most malignant brain tumour in humans, is distinguished from astrocytoma by the presence of necroses and vascular proliferations. Here we show that expression of an endothelial cell-specific mitogen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is induced in astrocytoma cells but is dramatically upregulated in two apparently different subsets of glioblastoma cells. The high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF, flt, although not expressed in normal brain endothelium, is upregulated in tumour endothelial cells in vivo. These observations strongly support the concept that tumour angiogenesis is regulated by paracrine mechanisms and identify VEGF as a potential tumour angiogenesis factor in vivo.

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2,318 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1101/GAD.1596707
Abstract: Malignant astrocytic gliomas such as glioblastoma are the most common and lethal intracranial tumors. These cancers exhibit a relentless malignant progression characterized by widespread invasion throughout the brain, resistance to traditional and newer targeted therapeutic approaches, destruction of normal brain tissue, and certain death. The recent confluence of advances in stem cell biology, cell signaling, genome and computational science and genetic model systems have revolutionized our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the genetics, biology and clinical behavior of glioblastoma. This progress is fueling new opportunities for understanding the fundamental basis for development of this devastating disease and also novel therapies that, for the first time, portend meaningful clinical responses.

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Topics: Genetic model (54%), Glioma (51%), Cancer stem cell (50%)

2,096 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202216
20211,726
20201,769
20191,582
20181,451
20171,509

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Michael Weller

242 papers, 19.3K citations

Darell D. Bigner

119 papers, 19.8K citations

Wolfgang Wick

116 papers, 9.6K citations

Tao Jiang

109 papers, 3.8K citations

Guido Reifenberger

65 papers, 13.6K citations

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