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Glucocorticoid

About: Glucocorticoid is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 14073 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 646556 citation(s). The topic is also known as: glucocorticosteroid & glucocorticoids.

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Journal ArticleDOI
10 Apr 1980-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown here that this morphological change is closely associated with excision of nucleosome chains from nuclear chromatin, apparently through activation of an intracellular, but non-lysosomal, endonuclease.

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Abstract: In near-physiological concentrations, glucocorticoid hormones cause the death of several types of normal and neoplastic lymphoid cell, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. One of the earliest structural changes in the dying cell is widespread chromatin condensation, of the type characteristic of apoptosis, the mode of death frequently observed where cell deletion seems to be 'programmed'. It is shown here that this morphological change is closely associated with excision of nucleosome chains from nuclear chromatin, apparently through activation of an intracellular, but non-lysosomal, endonuclease.

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4,562 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1984-Endocrine Reviews
TL;DR: It is proposed that stress-induced increases in glucocorticoid levels protect not against the source of stress itself but rather against the body's normal reactions to stress, preventing those reactions from overshooting and themselves threatening homeostasis.

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Abstract: Introduction and Background Modern glucocorticoid endocrinology is a colorful, richly varied, but formless discipline—a profusion of cellular, physiological and pharmacological effects, seemingly unrelated through any central hormonal function. A current list of glucocorticoid effects might include such disparate items as stimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis, inhibition of glucose uptake by peripheral tissues, suppression of inflammation, enhanced excretion of a water load, induction in various cells of tryptophan oxygenase and glutamine synthetase, suppression of numerous immune reactions, inhibition of secretion of several hormones and neuropeptides, and inhibition of activity of plasminogen activator and other neutral proteinases. Judging from recent writings on glucocorticoid physiology, an item that might be low on the list or missing altogether is “increased resistance to stress”.

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2,982 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Dong Liu1, Josie Diorio1, Josie Diorio2, Beth Tannenbaum1  +15 moreInstitutions (2)
12 Sep 1997-Science
TL;DR: It is suggested that maternal behavior serves to "program" hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress in the offspring.

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Abstract: Variations in maternal care affect the development of individual differences in neuroendocrine responses to stress in rats. As adults, the offspring of mothers that exhibited more licking and grooming of pups during the first 10 days of life showed reduced plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone responses to acute stress, increased hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA expression, enhanced glucocorticoid feedback sensitivity, and decreased levels of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA. Each measure was significantly correlated with the frequency of maternal licking and grooming (all r 9s > −0.6). These findings suggest that maternal behavior serves to “program” hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress in the offspring.

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2,951 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
19 Dec 1985-Nature
TL;DR: Identification of complementary DNAs encoding the human glucocorticoid receptor predicts two protein forms, of 777 (α) and 742 (β) amino acids, which differ at their carboxy termini, which may define the DNA-binding domain.

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Abstract: Identification of complementary DNAs encoding the human glucocorticoid receptor predicts two protein forms, of 777 (alpha) and 742 (beta) amino acids, which differ at their carboxy termini. The proteins contain a cysteine/lysine/arginine-rich region which may define the DNA-binding domain. Pure radiolabelled glucocorticoid receptor, synthesized in vitro, is immunoreactive and possesses intrinsic steroid-binding activity characteristic of the native glucocorticoid receptor.

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1,808 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Oct 1995-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone induces the transcription of the IκBα gene, which results in an increased rate of Iκbα protein synthesis, which is predicted to markedly decrease cytokine secretion and thus effectively block the activation of the immune system.

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Abstract: Glucocorticoids are potent immunosuppressive drugs, but their mechanism is poorly understood. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a regulator of immune system and inflammation genes, may be a target for glucocorticoid-mediated immunosuppression. The activation of NF-κB involves the targeted degradation of its cytoplasmic inhibitor, IκBα, and the translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus. Here it is shown that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone induces the transcription of the IκBα gene, which results in an increased rate of IκBα protein synthesis. Stimulation by tumor necrosis factor causes the release of NF-κB from IκBα. However, in the presence of dexamethasone this newly released NF-κB quickly reassociates with newly synthesized IκBα, thus markedly reducing the amount of NF-κB that translocates to the nucleus. This decrease in nuclear NF-κB is predicted to markedly decrease cytokine secretion and thus effectively block the activation of the immune system.

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1,653 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
2021286
2020335
2019350
2018283
2017331

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jonathan R. Seckl

166 papers, 21.3K citations

George P. Chrousos

136 papers, 13.2K citations

John A. Cidlowski

112 papers, 10.1K citations

Brian R. Walker

98 papers, 7.7K citations

Bruce S. McEwen

71 papers, 12.8K citations