Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity
About: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 400 publications have been published within this topic receiving 7199 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is suggested that G6PD activity plays a critical role in cell growth by providing NADPH for redox regulation.
Abstract: The intracellular redox potential, which is determined by the level of oxidants and reductants, has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of cell growth. The principal intracellular reductant is NADPH, which is mainly produced by the pentose phosphate pathway through the actions of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, and by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Previous research has suggested that an increase in G6PD activity is important for cell growth. In this article, we suggest that G6PD activity plays a critical role in cell growth by providing NADPH for redox regulation. The results show the following: 1) inhibition of G6PD activity abrogated growth factor stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation in all cell lines tested; 2) overexpression of G6PD stimulated cell growth, as measured by an increase in [3H]thymidine incorporations as compared with cells transfected with vector alone; 3) inhibition of G6PD caused cells to be more susceptible to the growth inhibitory effects of H2O2; 4) inhibition of G6PD led to a 30-40% decrease in the NADPH/NADP ratio; and 5) inhibition of G6PD inhibited cell anchorage and significantly decreased the growth-related stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylation.
TL;DR: It is shown that aldosterone decreased endothelial G6PD expression and activity in vitro, resulting in increased oxidant stress and decreased NO• levels—similar to what is observed in G6 PD-deficient endothelial cells.
Abstract: Hyperaldosteronism is associated with impaired vascular reactivity; however, the mechanisms by which aldosterone promotes endothelial dysfunction remain unknown Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) modulates vascular function by limiting oxidant stress to preserve bioavailable nitric oxide (NO(*)) Here we show that aldosterone (10(-9)-;10(-7) mol/l) decreased endothelial G6PD expression and activity in vitro, resulting in increased oxidant stress and decreased NO(*) levels-similar to what is observed in G6PD-deficient endothelial cells Aldosterone decreased G6PD expression by increasing expression of the cyclic AMP-response element modulator (CREM) to inhibit cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-mediated G6PD transcription In vivo, infusion of aldosterone decreased vascular G6PD expression and impaired vascular reactivity These effects were abrogated by spironolactone or vascular gene transfer of G6pd These findings demonstrate that aldosterone induces a G6PD-deficient phenotype to impair endothelial function; aldosterone antagonism or gene transfer of G6pd improves vascular reactivity by restoring G6PD activity
TL;DR: The results suggest that sHsp protect against oxidative stress through a G6PD-dependent ability to increase and uphold GSH in its reduced form and by using this redox modulator as an essential parameter of their in vivo chaperone activity against oxidized proteins.
Abstract: The protective activity of small stress proteins (sHsp) against H2O2-mediated cell death in the highly sensitive murine L929 fibroblast has been analyzed. We report here that the human Hsp27- and murine Hsp25-mediated rise in glutathione (GSH) levels as well as the maintenance of this redox modulator in its reduced form was directly responsible for the protection observed at the level of cell morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential. sHsp expression also buffered the increase in protein oxidation following H2O2 treatment and protected several key enzymes against inactivation. In this case, however, the protection necessitated both an increase in GSH and the presence of sHsp per se since the pattern of protection against protein oxidation mediated by a simple GSH increase was different from that induced by sHsp expression. Among the enzymes analyzed, we noticed that sHsp significantly increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and to a lesser extent glutathione reductase and glutathione transferase activities. Moreover, an increased GSH level was observed in G6PD-overexpressing L929 cell clones. Taken together our results suggest that sHsp protect against oxidative stress through a G6PD-dependent ability to increase and uphold GSH in its reduced form and by using this redox modulator as an essential parameter of their in vivo chaperone activity against oxidized proteins.
TL;DR: It is concluded that G6PDH plays a critical role in cell death by affecting the redox potential by causing changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation that were similar to the changes seen with H2O2.
Abstract: The intracellular redox potential plays an important role in cell survival. The principal intracellular reductant NADPH is mainly produced by the pentose phosphate pathway by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), the rate-limiting enzyme, and by 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Considering the importance of NADPH, we hypothesized that G6PDH plays a critical role in cell death. Our results show that 1) G6PDH inhibitors potentiated H2O2-induced cell death; 2) overexpression of G6PDH increased resistance to H2O2-induced cell death; 3) serum deprivation, a stimulator of cell death, was associated with decreased G6PDH activity and resulted in elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS); 4) additions of substrates for G6PDH to serum-deprived cells almost completely abrogated the serum deprivation-induced rise in ROS; 5) consequences of G6PDH inhibition included a significant increase in apoptosis, loss of protein thiols, and degradation of G6PDH; and 6) G6PDH inhibition caused changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation that were similar to the changes seen with H2O2. We conclude that G6PDH plays a critical role in cell death by affecting the redox potential.
TL;DR: In Alzheimer's disease, the activities of both enzymes were increased, the glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase activity being almost double the activity of normal controls.
Abstract: The activities of the hexose monophosphate pathway enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were measured at autopsy in control and Alzheimer's disease brains. Enzyme activities did not vary between different areas of brain and were unaltered by age. In Alzheimer's disease, the activities of both enzymes were increased, the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity being almost double the activity of normal controls. We propose that this increased enzyme activity is a response to elevated brain peroxide metabolism.