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Glutamate receptor

About: Glutamate receptor is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 33577 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1815444 citation(s). The topic is also known as: glutamate receptors & Receptors, Glutamate.
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1988-Neuron

4,555 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The application of molecular cloning technology to the study of the glutamate receptor system has led to an explosion of knowledge about the structure, expression, and function of this most important fast excitatory transmitter system in the mammalian brain.
Abstract: The application of molecular cloning technology to the study of the glutamate receptor system has led to an explosion of knowledge about the structure, expression, and function of this most important fast excitatory transmitter system in the mammalian brain. The first functional ionotropic glutamate receptor was cloned in 1989 (Hollmann et al 1989) , and the results of this molecular-based approach over the past three years are the focus of this review. We discuss the implications of and the new questions raised by this work-which is probably only a glance at this fascinating and complex signaling system found in brains from the snails to man. Glutamate receptors are found throughout the mammalian brain, where they constitute the major excitatory transmitter system. The longest-known and best-studied glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels, also called ionotropic glutamate receptors , which are permeable to cations. They have traditionally been classified into three broad subtypes based upon pharmaco­ logical and electrophysiological data: a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors, kainate (KA) receptors , and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Recently, however, a family of G protein-coupled glutamate receptors , which are also called metabotropic glutamate or transl -aminocyclopentanel ,3-dicarboxylate (tACPD) recep­ tors, was identified (Sugiyama et al 1987) . (For reviews of the classification and the pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of glutamate receptors see Mayer & Westbrook 1987, Collingridge & Lester 1989, Honore 1989, Monaghan et al 1989, Wroblewski & Danysz 1 989, Hansen &

4,031 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
29 Oct 1993-Science
TL;DR: Two broad mechanisms--oxidative stress and excessive activation of glutamate receptors--are converging and represent sequential as well as interacting processes that provide a final common pathway for cell vulnerability in the brain.
Abstract: There is an increasing amount of experimental evidence that oxidative stress is a causal, or at least an ancillary, factor in the neuropathology of several adult neurodegenerative disorders, as well as in stroke, trauma, and seizures. At the same time, excessive or persistent activation of glutamate-gated ion channels may cause neuronal degeneration in these same conditions. Glutamate and related acidic amino acids are thought to be the major excitatory neurotransmitters in brain and may be utilized by 40 percent of the synapses. Thus, two broad mechanisms--oxidative stress and excessive activation of glutamate receptors--are converging and represent sequential as well as interacting processes that provide a final common pathway for cell vulnerability in the brain. The broad distribution in brain of the processes regulating oxidative stress and mediating glutamatergic neurotransmission may explain the wide range of disorders in which both have been implicated. Yet differential expression of components of the processes in particular neuronal systems may account for selective neurodegeneration in certain disorders.

3,763 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1986-Nature
Abstract: Recent work has shown that the hippocampus contains a class of receptors for the excitatory amino acid glutamate that are activated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and that exhibit a peculiar dependency on membrane voltage in becoming active only on depolarization. Blockade of these sites with the drug aminophosphonovaleric acid (AP5) does not detectably affect synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, but prevents the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) following brief high-frequency stimulation. We now report that chronic intraventricular infusion of D,L-AP5 causes a selective impairment of place learning, which is highly sensitive to hippocampal damage, without affecting visual discrimination learning, which is not. The L-isomer of AP5 did not produce behavioural effects. AP5 treatment also suppressed LTP in vivo. These results suggest that NMDA receptors are involved in spatial learning, and add support to the hypothesis that LTP is involved in some, but not all, forms of learning.

3,422 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
25 Oct 1990-Nature
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that NO synthase in the brain to be exclusively associated with discrete neuronal populations, and prominent neural localizations provided the first conclusive evidence for a strong association of NO with neurons.
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO), apparently identical to endothelium-derived relaxing factor in blood vessels, is also formed by cytotoxic macrophages, in adrenal gland and in brain tissue, where it mediates the stimulation by glutamate of cyclic GMP formation in the cerebellum Stimulation of intestinal or anococcygeal nerves liberates NO, and the resultant muscle relaxation is blocked by arginine derivatives that inhibit NO synthesis It is, however, unclear whether in brain or intestine, NO released following nerve stimulation is formed in neurons, glia, fibroblasts, muscle or blood cells, all of which occur in proximity to neurons and so could account for effects of nerve stimulation on cGMP and muscle tone We have now localized NO synthase protein immunohistochemically in the rat using antisera to the purified enzyme We demonstrate NO synthase in the brain to be exclusively associated with discrete neuronal populations NO synthase is also concentrated in the neural innervation of the posterior pituitary, in autonomic nerve fibres in the retina, in cell bodies and nerve fibres in the myenteric plexus of the intestine, in adrenal medulla, and in vascular endothelial cells These prominent neural localizations provide the first conclusive evidence for a strong association of NO with neurons

2,941 citations


Network Information
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202213
2021843
2020854
2019865
2018850
2017920

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Arne Schousboe

168 papers, 15.3K citations

Mark P. Mattson

94 papers, 18.6K citations

Ferdinando Nicoletti

89 papers, 5.2K citations

Diogo O. Souza

83 papers, 3.5K citations

Su-Jane Wang

61 papers, 1K citations