About: Glutaraldehyde is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4818 publications have been published within this topic receiving 153274 citations. The topic is also known as: Glutaric dialdehyde & 1,5-Pentanedial.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A postfixation in osmium tetroxide, even after long periods of storage, developed an image that—notable in the case of glutaraldehyde—was largely indistinguishable from that of tissues fixed under optimal conditions with osmia tetroxides alone.
Abstract: The aldehydes introduced in this paper and the more appropriate concentrations for their general use as fixatives are: 4 to 6.5 per cent glutaraldehyde, 4 per cent glyoxal, 12.5 per cent hydroxyadipaldehyde, 10 per cent crotonaldehyde, 5 per cent pyruvic aldehyde, 10 per cent acetaldehyde, and 5 per cent methacrolein. These were prepared as cacodylate- or phosphate-buffered solutions (0.1 to 0.2 M, pH 6.5 to 7.6) that, with the exception of glutaraldehyde, contained sucrose (0.22 to 0.55 M). After fixation of from 0.5 hour to 24 hours, the blocks were stored in cold (4°C) buffer (0.1 M) plus sucrose (0.22 M). This material was used for enzyme histochemistry, for electron microscopy (both with and without a second fixation with 1 or 2 per cent osmium tetroxide) after Epon embedding, and for the combination of the two techniques. After fixation in aldehyde, membranous differentiations of the cell were not apparent and the nuclear structure differed from that commonly observed with osmium tetroxide. A postfixation in osmium tetroxide, even after long periods of storage, developed an image that—notable in the case of glutaraldehyde—was largely indistinguishable from that of tissues fixed under optimal conditions with osmium tetroxide alone. Aliesterase, acetylcholinesterase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, 5-nucleotidase, adenosine triphosphatase, and DPNH and TPNH diaphorase activities were demonstrable histochemically after most of the fixatives. Cytochrome oxidase, succinic dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphatase were retained after hydroxyaldipaldehyde and, to a lesser extent, after glyoxal fixation. The final product of the activity of several of the above-mentioned enzymes was localized in relation to the fine structure. For this purpose the double fixation procedure was used, selecting in each case the appropriate aldehyde.
TL;DR: Using this fixative and the peroxidase-labeled antibody technique, basement membrane antigen was localized within the cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum of parietal yolk sac cells and in extracellular basement membranes with adequate tissue preservation, a task which has not been successfully accomplished by conventional fixatives.
Abstract: A new fixative which primarily stabilizes carbohydrate moieties was developed for immunoelectron microscopy. It contains periodate, lysine and paraformaldehyde. Theoretically, the carbohydrates are oxidized by periodate and cross-linked by lysine. The fixative can preserve antigenicity as well as paraformaldehyde and ultrastructure as well as glutaraldehyde. Using this fixative and the peroxidase-labeled antibody technique, basement membrane antigen was localized within the cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum of parietal yolk sac cells and in extracellular basement membranes with adequate tissue successfully accomplished by conventional
TL;DR: An overview of glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking reagent is given by describing its structure and chemical properties in aqueous solution in an attempt to explain its high reactivity toward proteins, particularly as applied to the production of insoluble enzymes.
Abstract: Glutaraldehyde possesses unique characteristics that render it one of the most effective protein crosslinking reagents. It can be present in at least 13 different forms depending on solution conditions such as pH, concentration, temperature, etc. Substantial literature is found concerning the use of glutaraldehyde for protein immobilization, yet there is no agreement about the main reactive species that participates in the crosslinking process because monomeric and polymeric forms are in equilibrium. Glutaraldehyde may react with proteins by several means such as aldol condensation or Michael-type addition, and we show here 8 different reactions for various aqueous forms of this reagent. As a result of these discrepancies and the unique characteristics of each enzyme, crosslinking procedures using glutaraldehyde are largely developed through empirical observation. The choice of the enzyme-glutaraldehyde ratio, as well as their final concentration, is critical because insolubilization of the enzyme must result in minimal distortion of its structure in order to retain catalytic activity. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking reagent by describing its structure and chemical properties in aqueous solution in an attempt to explain its high reactivity toward proteins, particularly as applied to the production of insoluble enzymes.
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