About: Glutathione is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 42523 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1876505 citations. The topic is also known as: GSH & Glutathione-SH.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The purification of homogeneous glutathione S-transferases B and C from rat liver is described, and only transferases A and C are immunologically related.
Abstract: The purification of homogeneous glutathione S-transferases B and C from rat liver is described. Kinetic and physical properties of these enzymes are compared with those of homogeneous transferases A and E. The letter designations for the transferases are based on the reverse order of elution from carboxymethylcellulose, the purification step in which the transferases are separated from each other. Transferase B was purified on the basis of its ability to conjugate iodomethane with glutathione, whereas transferase C was purified on the basis of conjugation with 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. Although each of the four enzymes can be identified by its reactivity with specific substrates, all of the enzymes are active to differing degrees in the conjugation of glutathione with p-nitrobenzyl chloride. Assay conditions for a variety of substrates are included. All four glutathione transferases have a molecular weight of 45,000 and are dissociable into subunits of approximately 25,000 daltons. Despite the similar physical properties and overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes, only transferases A and C are immunologically related.
TL;DR: Glutathione peroxidase activity is found to be associated with a relatively stable, nondialyzable, heat-labile, intracellular component which is separable from hemoglobin, by gel filtration and ammonium sulfate precipitation.
Abstract: An assay procedure is described in which blood cell glutathione peroxidase may be accurately measured by a direct spectrophotometric procedure. Glutathione peroxidase activity is found to be associated with a relatively stable, nondialyzable, heat-labile, intracellular component which is separable from hemoglobin, by gel filtration and ammonium sulfate precipitation. The activity appears to be dependent upon active sulfhydryl groups and is unaffected by low concentrations of azide, cyanide, or ferricyanide.
TL;DR: The biochemistry of ROS and their production sites, and ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery are described, which protects plants against oxidative stress damages.
Abstract: Various abiotic stresses lead to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants which are highly reactive and toxic and cause damage to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA which ultimately results in oxidative stress. The ROS comprises both free radical (O(2)(-), superoxide radicals; OH, hydroxyl radical; HO(2), perhydroxy radical and RO, alkoxy radicals) and non-radical (molecular) forms (H(2)O(2), hydrogen peroxide and (1)O(2), singlet oxygen). In chloroplasts, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) are the major sites for the production of (1)O(2) and O(2)(-). In mitochondria, complex I, ubiquinone and complex III of electron transport chain (ETC) are the major sites for the generation of O(2)(-). The antioxidant defense machinery protects plants against oxidative stress damages. Plants possess very efficient enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; glutathione reductase, GR; monodehydroascorbate reductase, MDHAR; dehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; guaicol peroxidase, GOPX and glutathione-S- transferase, GST) and non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, ASH; glutathione, GSH; phenolic compounds, alkaloids, non-protein amino acids and α-tocopherols) antioxidant defense systems which work in concert to control the cascades of uncontrolled oxidation and protect plant cells from oxidative damage by scavenging of ROS. ROS also influence the expression of a number of genes and therefore control the many processes like growth, cell cycle, programmed cell death (PCD), abiotic stress responses, pathogen defense, systemic signaling and development. In this review, we describe the biochemistry of ROS and their production sites, and ROS scavenging antioxidant defense machinery.
TL;DR: This review examines the evidence for involvement of the oxidative stress in the carcinogenesis process and the role of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the process of carcinogenesis as well as the antioxidant interactions with various regulatory factors.
Abstract: Oxygen-free radicals, more generally known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. The “two-faced” character of ROS is substantiated by growing body of evidence that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades, which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. The cumulative production of ROS/RNS through either endogenous or exogenous insults is termed oxidative stress and is common for many types of cancer cell that are linked with altered redox regulation of cellular signalling pathways. Oxidative stress induces a cellular redox imbalance which has been found to be present in various cancer cells compared with normal cells; the redox imbalance thus may be related to oncogenic stimulation. DNA mutation is a critical step in carcinogenesis and elevated levels of oxidative DNA lesions (8-OH-G) have been noted in various tumours, strongly implicating such damage in the etiology of cancer. It appears that the DNA damage is predominantly linked with the initiation process. This review examines the evidence for involvement of the oxidative stress in the carcinogenesis process. Attention is focused on structural, chemical and biochemical aspects of free radicals, the endogenous and exogenous sources of their generation, the metal (iron, copper, chromium, cobalt, vanadium, cadmium, arsenic, nickel)-mediated formation of free radicals (e.g. Fenton chemistry), the DNA damage (both mitochondrial and nuclear), the damage to lipids and proteins by free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, cancer and the redox environment of a cell, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the role of signalling cascades by ROS; in particular, ROS activation of AP-1 (activator protein) and NF-B (nuclear factor kappa B) signal transduction pathways, which in turn lead to the transcription of genes involved in cell growth regulatory pathways. The role of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotenoids, thiol antioxidants (glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid), flavonoids, selenium and others) in the process of carcinogenesis as well as the antioxidant interactions with various regulatory factors, including Ref-1, NF-B, AP-1 are also reviewed. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trending Questions (10)