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About: Goethite is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4043 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 166853 citation(s).

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Abstract: The oxidation potential of dithionite (Na2S2O4) increases from 0.37 V to 0.73 V with increase in pH from 6 to 9, because hydroxyl is consumed during oxidation of dithionite. At the same time the amount of iron oxide dissolved in 15 minutes falls off (from 100 percent to less than 1 percent extracted) with increase in pH from 6 to 12 owing to solubility product relationships of iron oxides. An optimum pH for maximum reaction kinetics occurs at approximately pH 7.3. A buffer is needed to hold the pH at the optimum level because 4 moles of OH are used up in reaction with each mole of Na2S2O4 oxidized. Tests show that NaHCO3 effectively serves as a buffer in this application. Crystalline hematite dissolved in amounts of several hundred milligrams in 2 min. Crystalline goethite dissolved more slowly, but dissolved during the two or three 15 min treatments normally given for iron oxide removal from soils and clays. A series of methods for the extraction of iron oxides from soils and clays was tested with soils high in free iron oxides and with nontronite and other iron-bearing clays. It was found that the bicarbonate-buffered Na2S2O4-citrate system was the most effective in removal of free iron oxides from latosolic soils, and the least destructive of iron silicate clays as indicated by least loss in cation exchange capacity after the iron oxide removal treatment. With soils the decrease was very little but with the very susceptible Woody district nontronite, the decrease was about 17 percent as contrasted to 35–80 percent with other methods.

3,637 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The sorption data indicate that, under most of the chemical conditions investigated in this study, reduction of As(V) in the presence of HFO or goethite would have only minor effects on or even decrease its mobility in the environment at near-neutral pH conditions.
Abstract: Arsenic derived from natural sources occurs in groundwater in many countries, affecting the health of millions of people. The combined effects of As(V) reduction and diagenesis of iron oxide minerals on arsenic mobility are investigated in this study by comparing As(V) and As(III) sorption onto amorphous iron oxide (HFO), goethite, and magnetite at varying solution compositions. Experimental data are modeled with a diffuse double layer surface complexation model, and the extracted model parameters are used to examine the consistency of our results with those previously reported. Sorption of As(V) onto HFO and goethite is more favorable than that of As(III) below pH 5−6, whereas, above pH 7−8, As(III) has a higher affinity for the solids. The pH at which As(V) and As(III) are equally sorbed depends on the solid-to-solution ratio and type and specific surface area of the minerals and is shifted to lower pH values in the presence of phosphate, which competes for sorption sites. The sorption data indicate tha...

1,923 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Iron and aluminum were determined in acid ammonium oxalate extracts and in dithionite–citrate–bicarbonate extracts of a wide range of Canadian soils, several oxide and silicate minerals, and some amorphous preparations of iron or aluminum and silica. The oxalate extraction dissolved much of the iron and aluminum from the amorphous materials but very little from crystalline oxides, whereas the dithionite extraction dissolved a large proportion of the crystalline iron oxides as well as much of the amorphous materials. Oxalate-extractable iron and aluminum gave a useful indication of Bf horizon development in many soils, even if the parent materials were high in iron oxides. In one class of Gleysolic soils, however, the Bfg horizons were high in dithionite-extractable iron and low in oxalate-extractable iron. An accumulation of goethite was found in the Bfg horizon of some of these soils. In some other Gleysolic soils iron was depleted in the A horizon but there was no horizon of iron accumulation. Extractio...

1,768 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Borohydride reduction of an aqueous iron salt in the presence of a support material gives supported zero-valent iron nanoparticles that are 10−30 nm in diameter. The material is stable in air once it has dried and contains 22.6% iron by weight. The supported zero-valent iron nanoparticles (“Ferragels”) rapidly separate and immobilize Cr(VI) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution, reducing the chromium to Cr(III) and the Pb to Pb(0) while oxidizing the Fe to goethite (α-FeOOH). The kinetics of the reduction reactions are complex and include an adsorption phase. About 10% of the iron in the material appears to be located at active surface sites. Once these sites have been saturated, the reduction process continues but at a much lower rate, which is likely limited by mass transfer. Rates of remediation of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) are up to 30 times higher for Ferragels than for iron filings or iron powder on a (Fe) molar basis. Over 2 months, reduction of Cr(VI) was 4.8 times greater for Ferragels than for an equal weigh...

1,063 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The molecular structure of ions retained on mineral surfaces is needed to accurately model their sorption process and to determine their stability. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used in this study to deduce the local coordination environment of two environmental contaminants, arsenate and chromate, on the mineral goethite (α-FeOOH). Based on the oxyanion−Fe distances, it was concluded that three different surface complexes exist on goethite for both oxyanions: a monodentate complex, a bidentate-binuclear complex, and a bidentate-mononuclear complex. At low surface coverages, the monodentate complex was favored while at higher coverages the bidentate complexes were more prevalentthe bidentate-binuclear complex appears to be in the greatest proportion at these highest surface coverages. Therefore, modeling efforts for chromate or arsenate retention on goethite need to consider a monodentate complex at very low coverages, both the monodentate and bidentate complexes at in...

952 citations

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