About: GRAFS is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 16 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 3094 citation(s).
TL;DR: This study represents the first overall map of the GPCR sequences in a single mammalian genome and shows several common structural features indicating that the human GPCRs in the GRAFS families share a common ancestor.
Abstract: The superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is very diverse in structure and function and its members are among the most pursued targets for drug development. We identified more than 800 human GPCR sequences and simultaneously analyzed 342 unique functional nonolfactory human GPCR sequences with phylogenetic analyses. Our results show, with high bootstrap support, five main families, named glutamate, rhodopsin, adhesion, frizzled/taste2, and secretin, forming the GRAFS classification system. The rhodopsin family is the largest and forms four main groups with 13 sub-branches. Positions of the GPCRs in chromosomal paralogons regions indicate the importance of tetraploidizations or local gene duplication events for their creation. We also searched for "fingerprint" motifs using Hidden Markov Models delineating the putative inter-relationship of the GRAFS families. We show several common structural features indicating that the human GPCRs in the GRAFS families share a common ancestor. This study represents the first overall map of the GPCRs in a single mammalian genome. Our novel approach of analyzing such large and diverse sequence sets may be useful for studies on GPCRs in other genomes and divergent protein families.
TL;DR: An insight is provided in several studies that are being performed to elucidate the evolutionary history of the GPCR family as some of the branches are specific for certain lineages such as vertebrates or mammals, while others are found in a much larger variety of species.
Abstract: The super-family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one of the largest groups of proteins in vertebrate species. The receptors are very diverse in structure and function but they still share some common structural elements. Our recent phylogenetic studies indicate that most human GPCRs can be grouped into five main families named; Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled/Taste2, and Secretin, forming the GRAFS classification system. The rhodopsin family is the largest and forms four main groups termed α, β, γ, and δ with 13 sub-branches. We have evidence that the main families of the GRAFS classification system arose prior to the split of nematodes from the lineage leading to chordates. The major part of all GPCRs in mammalian, fish, tunicate, insect, and nematode species belong to the GRAFS families. The evolution of GPCRs in different phylogenetic branches are, however, very variable as some of the branches are specific for certain lineages such as vertebrates or mammals, while others are found in a much larger variety of species. In this review, we provide an insight in several studies that are being performed to elucidate the evolutionary history of the GPCR family.
TL;DR: This study provides the first evidence of the presence of four of the five main GRAFS families in Fungi and clarifies the early evolutionary history of the GPCR superfamily.
Abstract: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in humans are classified into the five main families named Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled and Secretin according to the GRAFS classification. Previous results show that these mammalian GRAFS families are well represented in the Metazoan lineages, but they have not been shown to be present in Fungi. Here, we systematically mined 79 fungal genomes and provide the first evidence that four of the five main mammalian families of GPCRs, namely Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Glutamate and Frizzled, are present in Fungi and found 142 novel sequences between them. Significantly, we provide strong evidence that the Rhodopsin family emerged from the cAMP receptor family in an event close to the split of Opisthokonts and not in Placozoa, as earlier assumed. The Rhodopsin family then expanded greatly in Metazoans while the cAMP receptor family is found in 3 invertebrate species and lost in the vertebrates. We estimate that the Adhesion and Frizzled families evolved before the split of Unikonts from a common ancestor of all major eukaryotic lineages. Also, the study highlights that the fungal Adhesion receptors do not have N-terminal domains whereas the fungal Glutamate receptors have a broad repertoire of mammalian-like N-terminal domains. Further, mining of the close unicellular relatives of the Metazoan lineage, Salpingoeca rosetta and Capsaspora owczarzaki, obtained a rich group of both the Adhesion and Glutamate families, which in particular provided insight to the early emergence of the N-terminal domains of the Adhesion family. We identified 619 Fungi specific GPCRs across 79 genomes and revealed that Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota phylum have Metazoan-like GPCRs rather than the GPCRs specific for Fungi. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of the presence of four of the five main GRAFS families in Fungi and clarifies the early evolutionary history of the GPCR superfamily.
TL;DR: An analysis of the Ciona repertoire of GPCRs from a comparative genomic perspective provides insight into the evolutionary origins of the GPCR signalling system in vertebrates and suggests that the ascidians contain the basic ancestral complement of vertebrate G PCR genes.
Abstract: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large family of integral transmembrane receptor proteins that play a central role in signal transduction in eukaryotes. The genome of the protochordate Ciona intestinalis has a compact size with an ancestral complement of many diversified gene families of vertebrates and is a good model system for studying protochordate to vertebrate diversification. An analysis of the Ciona repertoire of GPCRs from a comparative genomic perspective provides insight into the evolutionary origins of the GPCR signalling system in vertebrates. We have identified 169 gene products in the Ciona genome that code for putative GPCRs. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that Ciona GPCRs have homologous representatives from the five major GRAFS (Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled and Secretin) families concomitant with other vertebrate GPCR repertoires. Nearly 39% of Ciona GPCRs have unambiguous orthologs of vertebrate GPCR families, as defined for the human, mouse, puffer fish and chicken genomes. The Rhodopsin family accounts for ~68% of the Ciona GPCR repertoire wherein the LGR-like subfamily exhibits a lineage specific gene expansion of a group of receptors that possess a novel domain organisation hitherto unobserved in metazoan genomes. Comparison of GPCRs in Ciona to that in human reveals a high level of orthology of a protochordate repertoire with that of vertebrate GPCRs. Our studies suggest that the ascidians contain the basic ancestral complement of vertebrate GPCR genes. This is evident at the subfamily level comparisons since Ciona GPCR sequences are significantly analogous to vertebrate GPCR subfamilies even while exhibiting Ciona specific genes. Our analysis provides a framework to perform future experimental and comparative studies to understand the roles of the ancestral chordate versions of GPCRs that predated the divergence of the urochordates and the vertebrates.
TL;DR: This study reveals the position of pisces in vertebrate evolution from the GPCR perspective and suggests that Fugu can act as a reference model for the human genome for other protein families as well, going by the high orthology observed for GPCRs between Fugu and human.
Abstract: Guanine protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a eukaryotic transmembrane protein family and function as “molecular switches” in the second messenger cascades and are found in all organisms between yeast and humans. They form the single, biggest drug-target family due to their versatility of action and their role in several physiological functions, being active players in detecting the presence of light, a variety of smells and tastes, amino acids, nucleotides, lipids, chemicals etc. in the environment of the cell. Comparative genomic studies on model organisms provide information on target receptors in humans and their function. The Japanese teleost Fugu has been identified as one of the smallest vertebrate genomes and a compact model to study the human genome, owing to the great similarity in its gene repertoire with that of human and other vertebrates. Thus the characterization of the GPCRs of Fugu would provide insights to the evolution of the vertebrate genome. We classified the GPCRs in the Fugu genome and our analysis of its 316 membrane-bound receptors, available on the public databases as well as from literature, detected 298 GPCRs that were grouped into five main families according to the GRAFS classification system (namely, Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled and Secretin). We also identified 18 other GPCRs that could not be grouped under the GRAFS family and hence were classified as ‘Other 7TM’ receptors. On comparison of the GPCR information from the Fugu genome with those in the human and chicken genomes, we detected 96.83% (306/316) and 96.51% (305/316) orthology in GPCRs among the Fugu-human genomes and Fugu-chicken genomes, respectively. This study reveals the position of pisces in vertebrate evolution from the GPCR perspective. Fugu can act as a reference model for the human genome for other protein families as well, going by the high orthology observed for GPCRs between Fugu and human. The evolutionary comparison of GPCR sequences between key vertebrate classes of mammals, birds and fish will help in identifying key functional residues and motifs so as to fill in the blanks in the evolution of GPCRs in vertebrates.