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Grain boundary

About: Grain boundary is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 70126 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1525995 citations.


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01 Dec 1960
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a model for the development of the MICROSTRUCTURE in CERAMICS based on phase transformation, glass formation and glass-Ceramics.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION. Ceramic Processes and Products. CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC SOLIDS. Structure of Crystals. Structure of Glasses. Structural Imperfections. Surfaces, Interfaces, and Grain Boundaries. Atom Mobility. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN CERAMICS. Ceramic Phase Equilibrium Diagrams. Phase Transformation, Glass Formation and Glass--Ceramics. Reactions with and between Solids. Grain Growth. Sintering and Vitrification. Microstructure of Ceramics. PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS. Thermal Properties. Optical Properties. Plastic Deformation, Viscous Flow and Creep. Elasticity, Anelasticity and Strength. Thermal and Compositional Stresses. Electrical Conductivity. Dielectric Properties. Magnetic Properties.

6,650 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials are reviewed in this paper, with emphasis on their constitutive response and on the fundamental physical mechanisms, including the deviation from the Hall-Petch slope and possible negative slope, the effect of porosity, the difference between tensile and compressive strength, the limited ductility, the tendency for shear localization, fatigue and creep responses.

3,828 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
30 Jan 2015-Science
TL;DR: A solution-based hot-casting technique is demonstrated to grow continuous, pinhole-free thin films of organometallic perovskites with millimeter-scale crystalline grains that are applicable to several other material systems plagued by polydispersity, defects, and grain boundary recombination in solution-processed thin films.
Abstract: State-of-the-art photovoltaics use high-purity, large-area, wafer-scale single-crystalline semiconductors grown by sophisticated, high-temperature crystal growth processes. We demonstrate a solution-based hot-casting technique to grow continuous, pinhole-free thin films of organometallic perovskites with millimeter-scale crystalline grains. We fabricated planar solar cells with efficiencies approaching 18%, with little cell-to-cell variability. The devices show hysteresis-free photovoltaic response, which had been a fundamental bottleneck for the stable operation of perovskite devices. Characterization and modeling attribute the improved performance to reduced bulk defects and improved charge carrier mobility in large-grain devices. We anticipate that this technique will lead the field toward synthesis of wafer-scale crystalline perovskites, necessary for the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells, and will be applicable to several other material systems plagued by polydispersity, defects, and grain boundary recombination in solution-processed thin films.

2,960 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Lei Lu1, Yongfeng Shen1, Xianhua Chen1, Lihua Qian1, Kathy Lu1 
16 Apr 2004-Science
TL;DR: Pure copper samples with a high density of nanoscale growth twins are synthesized and show a tensile strength about 10 times higher than that of conventional coarse-grained copper, while retaining an electrical conductivity comparable to that of pure copper.
Abstract: Methods used to strengthen metals generally also cause a pronounced decrease in electrical conductivity, so that a tradeoff must be made between conductivity and mechanical strength. We synthesized pure copper samples with a high density of nanoscale growth twins. They showed a tensile strength about 10 times higher than that of conventional coarse-grained copper, while retaining an electrical conductivity comparable to that of pure copper. The ultrahigh strength originates from the effective blockage of dislocation motion by numerous coherent twin boundaries that possess an extremely low electrical resistivity, which is not the case for other types of grain boundaries.

2,584 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report measurements of the oxide scale thickness and oxide grain size as a function of time during the oxidation of high-purity nickel in the temperature range 500-800°C.
Abstract: Below 1000°C the oxidation of nickel cannot be controlled by the diffusion of ions through the bulk crystal lattice of the pure oxide, because the measured oxidation rates are several orders of magnitude faster than would be predicted on this basis. Short-circuit diffusion through oxide grain boundaries or dislocations has usually been held responsible, but there has hitherto been no proper quantitative confirmation of this mechanism. We report measurements of the oxide scale thickness and oxide grain size as a function of time during the oxidation of high-purity nickel in the temperature range 500–800°C. All the oxidation experiments were carried out in pure oxygen at a pressure of one atmosphere. The measured parabolic oxidation rate constants have been compared with those calculated from grain boundary diffusion data obtained in our previous work, using a grain boundary diffusion model for the oxidation process. The quantitative agreement between measured and calculated oxidation rates shows c...

2,579 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20231,792
20223,488
20213,126
20203,126
20192,872
20182,789