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Grain growth

About: Grain growth is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 19901 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 447044 citation(s).
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01 Dec 1960
Abstract: INTRODUCTION. Ceramic Processes and Products. CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC SOLIDS. Structure of Crystals. Structure of Glasses. Structural Imperfections. Surfaces, Interfaces, and Grain Boundaries. Atom Mobility. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN CERAMICS. Ceramic Phase Equilibrium Diagrams. Phase Transformation, Glass Formation and Glass--Ceramics. Reactions with and between Solids. Grain Growth. Sintering and Vitrification. Microstructure of Ceramics. PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS. Thermal Properties. Optical Properties. Plastic Deformation, Viscous Flow and Creep. Elasticity, Anelasticity and Strength. Thermal and Compositional Stresses. Electrical Conductivity. Dielectric Properties. Magnetic Properties.

6,594 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An analysis is made of the process whereby diffusion effects can cause the precipitation of grains of a second phase in a supersaturated solid solution. The kinetics of this type of grain growth are examined in detail. Some grains grow, only to be later dissolved; others increase in size and incorporate further grains that they encounter in so doing. This latter phenomenon of coalescence is discussed in a new “kinetic” approximation. Formulae are given for the asymptotic grain size distribution, for the number of grains per unit volume and for the supersaturation as a function of time. The effects of anisotropy, strain, crystalline order and the finite size of the specimen are allowed for. It is pointed out that for a material that can be said to be “supersaturated with vacancies”, the discussion can be applied to the vacancies as solute “atoms” which cluster together to form internal cavities. The practical case of a real, finite crystal is here important, because the vacancies can in general also escape to the surface. A special analysis is made of this example, and the results are applied to the theory of sintering.

6,470 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A growth equation for individual grains in single-phase materials is suggested. It is used to calculate a rate equation for normal grain growth and the size distribution in the material. It predicts a maximum size of twice the average size. The theory is modified to take into account the effect of second-phase particles. In an alternative treatment the array of grains is described in terms of a kind of defects introduced into a perfect array. The defects move through the array during grain growth. The rate of grain growth is calculated from the number of defects and their mobility. The defect concentration is predicted by comparing the two treatments. The defect-model predicts two grain size limits due to second-phase particles. Normal grain growth takes place below the lower limit. Abnormal grain growth can take place between the two limits if the material contains at least one very large grain. No grain growth can take place above the higher limit. Several possible mechanisms for the development of abnormal grain growth are examined. An explanation is offered for the observation that most of the well-known cases occur as the second-phase is dissolving.

1,714 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A model is proposed which realistically characterizes the grain structure of polycrystalline ceramics. The average grain size of a log-normal distribution of grain sizes with tetrakaidecahedral (truncated octahedral) shape is related to the average intercept size by a proportionality constant. This result can be used to determine the average grain size of a sintered powder compact composed of nontextured grains which shows no discontinuous grain growth.

1,597 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Atomic-scale control and manipulation of the microstructure of polycrystalline thin films during kinetically limited low-temperature deposition, crucial for a broad range of industrial applications, has been a leading goal of materials science during the past decades. Here, we review the present understanding of film growth processes—nucleation, coalescence, competitive grain growth, and recrystallization—and their role in microstructural evolution as a function of deposition variables including temperature, the presence of reactive species, and the use of low-energy ion irradiation during growth.

1,372 citations

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