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Grain size

About: Grain size is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 40166 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 855016 citation(s). The topic is also known as: particle size.

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Abstract: A bar on the Brazos River near Calvert, Texas, has been analyzed in order to determine the geologic meaning of certain grain size parameters and to study the behavior of the size fractions with transport. The bar consists of a strongly bimodal mixture of pebble gravel and medium to fine sand; there is a lack of material in the range of 0.5 to 2 mm, because the source does not supply particles of this size. The size distributions of the two modes, which were established in the parent deposits, are nearly invariant over the bar because the present environment of deposition only affects the relative proportions of the two modes, not the grain size properties of the modes themselves. Two proportions are most common; the sediment either contains no gravel or else contains about 60% gravel. Three sediment types with characteristic bedding features occur on the bar in constant stratigraphic order, with the coarsest at the base. Statistical analysis of the data is based on a series of grain size parameters modified from those of Inman (1952) to provide a more detailed coverage of non-normal size curves. Unimodal sediments have nearly normal curves as defined by their skewness and kurtosis. Non-normal kurtosis and skewness values are held to be the identifying characteristics of bimodal sediments even where such modes are not evident in frequency curves. The relative proportions of each mode define a systematic series of changes in numerical properties; mean size, standard deviation and skewness are shown to be linked in a helical trend, which is believed to be applicable to many other sedimentary suites. The equations of the helix may be characteristic of certain environments. Kurtosis values show rhythmic pulsations along the helix and are diagnostic of two-generation sediments.

5,639 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Below 1000°C the oxidation of nickel cannot be controlled by the diffusion of ions through the bulk crystal lattice of the pure oxide, because the measured oxidation rates are several orders of magnitude faster than would be predicted on this basis. Short-circuit diffusion through oxide grain boundaries or dislocations has usually been held responsible, but there has hitherto been no proper quantitative confirmation of this mechanism. We report measurements of the oxide scale thickness and oxide grain size as a function of time during the oxidation of high-purity nickel in the temperature range 500–800°C. All the oxidation experiments were carried out in pure oxygen at a pressure of one atmosphere. The measured parabolic oxidation rate constants have been compared with those calculated from grain boundary diffusion data obtained in our previous work, using a grain boundary diffusion model for the oxidation process. The quantitative agreement between measured and calculated oxidation rates shows c...

2,573 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 Oct 2002-Nature
TL;DR: A thermomechanical treatment of Cu is described that results in a bimodal grain size distribution, with micrometre-sized grains embedded inside a matrix of nanocrystalline and ultrafine (<300 nm) grains, which impart high strength, as expected from an extrapolation of the Hall–Petch relationship.
Abstract: Nanocrystalline metals--with grain sizes of less than 100 nm--have strengths exceeding those of coarse-grained and even alloyed metals, and are thus expected to have many applications. For example, pure nanocrystalline Cu (refs 1-7) has a yield strength in excess of 400 MPa, which is six times higher than that of coarse-grained Cu. But nanocrystalline materials often exhibit low tensile ductility at room temperature, which limits their practical utility. The elongation to failure is typically less than a few per cent; the regime of uniform deformation is even smaller. Here we describe a thermomechanical treatment of Cu that results in a bimodal grain size distribution, with micrometre-sized grains embedded inside a matrix of nanocrystalline and ultrafine (<300 nm) grains. The matrix grains impart high strength, as expected from an extrapolation of the Hall-Petch relationship. Meanwhile, the inhomogeneous microstructure induces strain hardening mechanisms that stabilize the tensile deformation, leading to a high tensile ductility--65% elongation to failure, and 30% uniform elongation. We expect that these results will have implications in the development of tough nanostructured metals for forming operations and high-performance structural applications including microelectromechanical and biomedical systems.

2,216 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A growth equation for individual grains in single-phase materials is suggested. It is used to calculate a rate equation for normal grain growth and the size distribution in the material. It predicts a maximum size of twice the average size. The theory is modified to take into account the effect of second-phase particles. In an alternative treatment the array of grains is described in terms of a kind of defects introduced into a perfect array. The defects move through the array during grain growth. The rate of grain growth is calculated from the number of defects and their mobility. The defect concentration is predicted by comparing the two treatments. The defect-model predicts two grain size limits due to second-phase particles. Normal grain growth takes place below the lower limit. Abnormal grain growth can take place between the two limits if the material contains at least one very large grain. No grain growth can take place above the higher limit. Several possible mechanisms for the development of abnormal grain growth are examined. An explanation is offered for the observation that most of the well-known cases occur as the second-phase is dissolving.

1,714 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Jan 2011-Nature
TL;DR: This work determines the location and identity of every atom at a grain boundary and finds that different grains stitch together predominantly through pentagon–heptagon pairs, and reveals an unexpectedly small and intricate patchwork of grains connected by tilt boundaries.
Abstract: The properties of polycrystalline materials are often dominated by the size of their grains and by the atomic structure of their grain boundaries. These effects should be especially pronounced in two-dimensional materials, where even a line defect can divide and disrupt a crystal. These issues take on practical significance in graphene, which is a hexagonal, two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms. Single-atom-thick graphene sheets can now be produced by chemical vapour deposition on scales of up to metres, making their polycrystallinity almost unavoidable. Theoretically, graphene grain boundaries are predicted to have distinct electronic, magnetic, chemical and mechanical properties that strongly depend on their atomic arrangement. Yet because of the five-order-of-magnitude size difference between grains and the atoms at grain boundaries, few experiments have fully explored the graphene grain structure. Here we use a combination of old and new transmission electron microscopy techniques to bridge these length scales. Using atomic-resolution imaging, we determine the location and identity of every atom at a grain boundary and find that different grains stitch together predominantly through pentagon-heptagon pairs. Rather than individually imaging the several billion atoms in each grain, we use diffraction-filtered imaging to rapidly map the location, orientation and shape of several hundred grains and boundaries, where only a handful have been previously reported. The resulting images reveal an unexpectedly small and intricate patchwork of grains connected by tilt boundaries. By correlating grain imaging with scanning probe and transport measurements, we show that these grain boundaries severely weaken the mechanical strength of graphene membranes but do not as drastically alter their electrical properties. These techniques open a new window for studies on the structure, properties and control of grains and grain boundaries in graphene and other two-dimensional materials.

1,684 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years