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Graphene nanoribbons

About: Graphene nanoribbons is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 14354 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 854716 citation(s). more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMAT1849
Andre K. Geim1, Kostya S. Novoselov1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 2007-Nature Materials
Abstract: Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications. more

Topics: Graphene antenna (57%), Graphene nanoribbons (53%), Bilayer graphene (52%) more

32,822 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/REVMODPHYS.81.109
Abstract: This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene depend on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented. more

Topics: Graphene nanoribbons (67%), Silicene (64%), Graphene (64%) more

18,972 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.97.187401
Abstract: Graphene is the two-dimensional building block for carbon allotropes of every other dimensionality We show that its electronic structure is captured in its Raman spectrum that clearly evolves with the number of layers The D peak second order changes in shape, width, and position for an increasing number of layers, reflecting the change in the electron bands via a double resonant Raman process The G peak slightly down-shifts This allows unambiguous, high-throughput, nondestructive identification of graphene layers, which is critically lacking in this emerging research area more

Topics: Bilayer graphene (64%), Graphene nanoribbons (62%), Graphene (58%) more

12,229 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE04969
20 Jul 2006-Nature
Abstract: The remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes arise from the exceptional strength and stiffness of the atomically thin carbon sheets (graphene) from which they are formed. In contrast, bulk graphite, a polycrystalline material, has low fracture strength and tends to suffer failure either by delamination of graphene sheets or at grain boundaries between the crystals. Now Stankovich et al. have produced an inexpensive polymer-matrix composite by separating graphene sheets from graphite and chemically tuning them. The material contains dispersed graphene sheets and offers access to a broad range of useful thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Individual sheets of graphene can be readily incorporated into a polymer matrix, giving rise to composite materials having potentially useful electronic properties. Graphene sheets—one-atom-thick two-dimensional layers of sp2-bonded carbon—are predicted to have a range of unusual properties. Their thermal conductivity and mechanical stiffness may rival the remarkable in-plane values for graphite (∼3,000 W m-1 K-1 and 1,060 GPa, respectively); their fracture strength should be comparable to that of carbon nanotubes for similar types of defects1,2,3; and recent studies have shown that individual graphene sheets have extraordinary electronic transport properties4,5,6,7,8. One possible route to harnessing these properties for applications would be to incorporate graphene sheets in a composite material. The manufacturing of such composites requires not only that graphene sheets be produced on a sufficient scale but that they also be incorporated, and homogeneously distributed, into various matrices. Graphite, inexpensive and available in large quantity, unfortunately does not readily exfoliate to yield individual graphene sheets. Here we present a general approach for the preparation of graphene-polymer composites via complete exfoliation of graphite9 and molecular-level dispersion of individual, chemically modified graphene sheets within polymer hosts. A polystyrene–graphene composite formed by this route exhibits a percolation threshold10 of ∼0.1 volume per cent for room-temperature electrical conductivity, the lowest reported value for any carbon-based composite except for those involving carbon nanotubes11; at only 1 volume per cent, this composite has a conductivity of ∼0.1 S m-1, sufficient for many electrical applications12. Our bottom-up chemical approach of tuning the graphene sheet properties provides a path to a broad new class of graphene-based materials and their use in a variety of applications. more

Topics: Graphene oxide paper (71%), Graphene foam (66%), Graphene nanoribbons (66%) more

11,078 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1158877
Andre K. Geim1Institutions (1)
19 Jun 2009-Science
Abstract: Graphene is a wonder material with many superlatives to its name. It is the thinnest known material in the universe and the strongest ever measured. Its charge carriers exhibit giant intrinsic mobility, have zero effective mass, and can travel for micrometers without scattering at room temperature. Graphene can sustain current densities six orders of magnitude higher than that of copper, shows record thermal conductivity and stiffness, is impermeable to gases, and reconciles such conflicting qualities as brittleness and ductility. Electron transport in graphene is described by a Dirac-like equation, which allows the investigation of relativistic quantum phenomena in a benchtop experiment. This review analyzes recent trends in graphene research and applications, and attempts to identify future directions in which the field is likely to develop. more

10,893 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Klaus Müllen

131 papers, 15.2K citations

Xinliang Feng

78 papers, 10.7K citations

James M. Tour

77 papers, 13.1K citations

Akimitsu Narita

64 papers, 3.9K citations

Roman Fasel

50 papers, 6.9K citations

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