Topic

# Graphics

About: Graphics is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 17394 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 411468 citation(s). The topic is also known as: graphic.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: CCP4mg is a project that aims to provide a general-purpose tool for structural biologists, providing tools for X-ray structure solution, structure comparison and analysis, and publication-quality graphics.

Abstract: CCP4mg is a project that aims to provide a general-purpose tool for structural biologists, providing tools for X-ray structure solution, structure comparison and analysis, and publication-quality graphics. The map-fitting tools are available as a stand-alone package, distributed as `Coot'.

24,547 citations

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13 Aug 2009

TL;DR: This book describes ggplot2, a new data visualization package for R that uses the insights from Leland Wilkisons Grammar of Graphics to create a powerful and flexible system for creating data graphics.

Abstract: This book describes ggplot2, a new data visualization package for R that uses the insights from Leland Wilkisons Grammar of Graphics to create a powerful and flexible system for creating data graphics. With ggplot2, its easy to: produce handsome, publication-quality plots, with automatic legends created from the plot specification superpose multiple layers (points, lines, maps, tiles, box plots to name a few) from different data sources, with automatically adjusted common scales add customisable smoothers that use the powerful modelling capabilities of R, such as loess, linear models, generalised additive models and robust regression save any ggplot2 plot (or part thereof) for later modification or reuse create custom themes that capture in-house or journal style requirements, and that can easily be applied to multiple plots approach your graph from a visual perspective, thinking about how each component of the data is represented on the final plot. This book will be useful to everyone who has struggled with displaying their data in an informative and attractive way. You will need some basic knowledge of R (i.e. you should be able to get your data into R), but ggplot2 is a mini-language specifically tailored for producing graphics, and youll learn everything you need in the book. After reading this book youll be able to produce graphics customized precisely for your problems,and youll find it easy to get graphics out of your head and on to the screen or page.

23,839 citations

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01 Jan 1995

TL;DR: This chapter discusses the development of Hardware and Software for Computer Graphics, and the design methodology of User-Computer Dialogues, which led to the creation of the Simple Raster Graphics Package.

Abstract: 1 Introduction Image Processing as Picture Analysis The Advantages of Interactive Graphics Representative Uses of Computer Graphics Classification of Applications Development of Hardware and Software for Computer Graphics Conceptual Framework for Interactive Graphics 2 Programming in the Simple Raster Graphics Package (SRGP)/ Drawing with SRGP/ Basic Interaction Handling/ Raster Graphics Features/ Limitations of SRGP/ 3 Basic Raster Graphics Algorithms for Drawing 2d Primitives Overview Scan Converting Lines Scan Converting Circles Scan Convertiing Ellipses Filling Rectangles Fillign Polygons Filling Ellipse Arcs Pattern Filling Thick Primiives Line Style and Pen Style Clipping in a Raster World Clipping Lines Clipping Circles and Ellipses Clipping Polygons Generating Characters SRGP_copyPixel Antialiasing 4 Graphics Hardware Hardcopy Technologies Display Technologies Raster-Scan Display Systems The Video Controller Random-Scan Display Processor Input Devices for Operator Interaction Image Scanners 5 Geometrical Transformations 2D Transformations Homogeneous Coordinates and Matrix Representation of 2D Transformations Composition of 2D Transformations The Window-to-Viewport Transformation Efficiency Matrix Representation of 3D Transformations Composition of 3D Transformations Transformations as a Change in Coordinate System 6 Viewing in 3D Projections Specifying an Arbitrary 3D View Examples of 3D Viewing The Mathematics of Planar Geometric Projections Implementing Planar Geometric Projections Coordinate Systems 7 Object Hierarchy and Simple PHIGS (SPHIGS) Geometric Modeling Characteristics of Retained-Mode Graphics Packages Defining and Displaying Structures Modeling Transformations Hierarchical Structure Networks Matrix Composition in Display Traversal Appearance-Attribute Handling in Hierarchy Screen Updating and Rendering Modes Structure Network Editing for Dynamic Effects Interaction Additional Output Features Implementation Issues Optimizing Display of Hierarchical Models Limitations of Hierarchical Modeling in PHIGS Alternative Forms of Hierarchical Modeling 8 Input Devices, Interaction Techniques, and Interaction Tasks Interaction Hardware Basic Interaction Tasks Composite Interaction Tasks 9 Dialogue Design The Form and Content of User-Computer Dialogues User-Interfaces Styles Important Design Considerations Modes and Syntax Visual Design The Design Methodology 10 User Interface Software Basic Interaction-Handling Models Windows-Management Systems Output Handling in Window Systems Input Handling in Window Systems Interaction-Technique Toolkits User-Interface Management Systems 11 Representing Curves and Surfaces Polygon Meshes Parametric Cubic Curves Parametric Bicubic Surfaces Quadric Surfaces 12 Solid Modeling Representing Solids Regularized Boolean Set Operations Primitive Instancing Sweep Representations Boundary Representations Spatial-Partitioning Representations Constructive Solid Geometry Comparison of Representations User Interfaces for Solid Modeling 13 Achromatic and Colored Light Achromatic Light Chromatic Color Color Models for Raster Graphics Reproducing Color Using Color in Computer Graphics 14 The Quest for Visual Realism Why Realism? Fundamental Difficulties Rendering Techniques for Line Drawings Rendering Techniques for Shaded Images Improved Object Models Dynamics Stereopsis Improved Displays Interacting with Our Other Senses Aliasing and Antialiasing 15 Visible-Surface Determination Functions of Two Variables Techniques for Efficient Visible-Surface Determination Algorithms for Visible-Line Determination The z-Buffer Algorithm List-Priority Algorithms Scan-Line Algorithms Area-Subdivision Algorithms Algorithms for Octrees Algorithms for Curved Surfaces Visible-Surface Ray Tracing 16 Illumination And Shading Illumination Modeling Shading Models for Polygons Surface Detail Shadows Transparency Interobject Reflections Physically Based Illumination Models Extended Light Sources Spectral Sampling Improving the Camera Model Global Illumination Algorithms Recursive Ray Tracing Radiosity Methods The Rendering Pipeline 17 Image Manipulation and Storage What Is an Image? Filtering Image Processing Geometric Transformations of Images Multipass Transformations Image Compositing Mechanisms for Image Storage Special Effects with Images Summary 18 Advanced Raster Graphic Architecture Simple Raster-Display System Display-Processor Systems Standard Graphics Pipeline Introduction to Multiprocessing Pipeline Front-End Architecture Parallel Front-End Architectures Multiprocessor Rasterization Architectures Image-Parallel Rasterization Object-Parallel Rasterization Hybrid-Parallel Rasterization Enhanced Display Capabilities 19 Advanced Geometric and Raster Algorithms Clipping Scan-Converting Primitives Antialiasing The Special Problems of Text Filling Algorithms Making copyPixel Fast The Shape Data Structure and Shape Algebra Managing Windows with bitBlt Page Description Languages 20 Advanced Modeling Techniques Extensions of Previous Techniques Procedural Models Fractal Models Grammar-Based Models Particle Systems Volume Rendering Physically Based Modeling Special Models for Natural and Synthetic Objects Automating Object Placement 21 Animation Conventional and Computer-Assisted Animation Animation Languages Methods of Controlling Animation Basic Rules of Animation Problems Peculiar to Animation Appendix: Mathematics for Computer Graphics Vector Spaces and Affine Spaces Some Standard Constructions in Vector Spaces Dot Products and Distances Matrices Linear and Affine Transformations Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Newton-Raphson Iteration for Root Finding Bibliography Index 0201848406T04062001

5,690 citations

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01 Jan 1997TL;DR: In this article, an introduction to computational geometry focusing on algorithms is presented, which is related to particular applications in robotics, graphics, CAD/CAM, and geographic information systems.

Abstract: This introduction to computational geometry focuses on algorithms. Motivation is provided from the application areas as all techniques are related to particular applications in robotics, graphics, CAD/CAM, and geographic information systems. Modern insights in computational geometry are used to provide solutions that are both efficient and easy to understand and implement.

4,651 citations

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18 Feb 1993

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of programs that summarize data with histograms and other graphics, calculate measures of spatial continuity, provide smooth least-squares-type maps, and perform stochastic spatial simulation.

Abstract: Thirty-seven programs that summarize data with histograms and other graphics, calculate measures of spatial continuity, provide smooth least-squares-type maps, and perform stochastic spatial simulation.

4,301 citations