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Graphitic carbon nitride

About: Graphitic carbon nitride is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4992 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 234399 citation(s).

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Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMAT2317
Xinchen Wang1, Kazuhiko Maeda2, Arne Thomas1, Kazuhiro Takanabe2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jan 2009-Nature Materials
Abstract: The production of hydrogen from water using a catalyst and solar energy is an ideal future energy source, independent of fossil reserves. For an economical use of water and solar energy, catalysts that are sufficiently efficient, stable, inexpensive and capable of harvesting light are required. Here, we show that an abundant material, polymeric carbon nitride, can produce hydrogen from water under visible-light irradiation in the presence of a sacrificial donor. Contrary to other conducting polymer semiconductors, carbon nitride is chemically and thermally stable and does not rely on complicated device manufacturing. The results represent an important first step towards photosynthesis in general where artificial conjugated polymer semiconductors can be used as energy transducers.

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Topics: Energy source (59%), Photocatalytic water splitting (56%), Hydrogen production (56%) ...read more

7,884 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.CHEMREV.6B00075
Wee-Jun Ong1, Lling-Lling Tan1, Yun Hau Ng2, Siek Ting Yong1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
20 May 2016-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: As a fascinating conjugated polymer, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has become a new research hotspot and drawn broad interdisciplinary attention as a metal-free and visible-light-responsive photocatalyst in the arena of solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. This is due to its appealing electronic band structure, high physicochemical stability, and “earth-abundant” nature. This critical review summarizes a panorama of the latest progress related to the design and construction of pristine g-C3N4 and g-C3N4-based nanocomposites, including (1) nanoarchitecture design of bare g-C3N4, such as hard and soft templating approaches, supramolecular preorganization assembly, exfoliation, and template-free synthesis routes, (2) functionalization of g-C3N4 at an atomic level (elemental doping) and molecular level (copolymerization), and (3) modification of g-C3N4 with well-matched energy levels of another semiconductor or a metal as a cocatalyst to form heterojunction nanostructures. The constructi...

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3,562 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ANIE.201101182
Yong Wang1, Xinchen Wang1, Markus Antonietti1Institutions (1)
02 Jan 2012-Angewandte Chemie
Abstract: Polymeric graphitic carbon nitride materials (for simplicity: g-C(3)N(4)) have attracted much attention in recent years because of their similarity to graphene. They are composed of C, N, and some minor H content only. In contrast to graphenes, g-C(3)N(4) is a medium-bandgap semiconductor and in that role an effective photocatalyst and chemical catalyst for a broad variety of reactions. In this Review, we describe the "polymer chemistry" of this structure, how band positions and bandgap can be varied by doping and copolymerization, and how the organic solid can be textured to make it an effective heterogenous catalyst. g-C(3)N(4) and its modifications have a high thermal and chemical stability and can catalyze a number of "dream reactions", such as photochemical splitting of water, mild and selective oxidation reactions, and--as a coactive catalytic support--superactive hydrogenation reactions. As carbon nitride is metal-free as such, it also tolerates functional groups and is therefore suited for multipurpose applications in biomass conversion and sustainable chemistry.

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Topics: Graphitic carbon nitride (59%), Carbon nitride (57%), Catalysis (54%) ...read more

2,360 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/B800274F
Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride, g-C3N4, can be made by polymerization of cyanamide, dicyandiamide or melamine. Depending on reaction conditions, different materials with different degrees of condensation, properties and reactivities are obtained. The firstly formed polymeric C3N4 structure, melon, with pendant amino groups, is a highly ordered polymer. Further reaction leads to more condensed and less defective C3N4 species, based on tri-s-triazine (C6N7) units as elementary building blocks. High resolution transmission electron microscopy proves the extended two-dimensional character of the condensation motif. Due to the polymerization-type synthesis from a liquid precursor, a variety of material nanostructures such as nanoparticles or mesoporous powders can be accessed. Those nanostructures also allow fine tuning of properties, the ability for intercalation, as well as the possibility to give surface-rich materials for heterogeneous reactions. Due to the special semiconductor properties of carbon nitrides, they show unexpected catalytic activity for a variety of reactions, such as for the activation of benzene, trimerization reactions, and also the activation of carbon dioxide. Model calculations are presented to explain this unusual case of heterogeneous, metal-free catalysis. Carbon nitride can also act as a heterogeneous reactant, and a new family of metal nitride nanostructures can be accessed from the corresponding oxides.

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Topics: Graphitic carbon nitride (72%), Carbon nitride (66%), Nitride (60%) ...read more

2,347 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADFM.201200922
Ping Niu1, Lili Zhang1, Gang Liu1, Hui-Ming Cheng1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Graphitic (g)-C3N4 with a layered structure has the potential of forming graphene-like nanosheets with unusual physicochemical properties due to weak van der Waals forces between layers. Herein is shown that g-C3N4 nanosheets with a thickness of around 2 nm can be easily obtained by a simple top-down strategy, namely, thermal oxidation etching of bulk g-C3N4 in air. Compared to the bulk g-C3N4, the highly anisotropic 2D-nanosheets possess a high specific surface area of 306 m2 g-1, a larger bandgap (by 0.2 eV), improved electron transport ability along the in-plane direction, and increased lifetime of photoexcited charge carriers because of the quantum confinement effect. As a consequence, the photocatalytic activities of g-C3N4 nanosheets have been remarkably improved in terms of OH radical generation and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

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Topics: Graphitic carbon nitride (53%), Graphene (53%), Potential well (52%) ...read more

2,327 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202267
2021970
2020945
2019828
2018642
2017482

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Markus Antonietti

70 papers, 21.2K citations

Xinchen Wang

46 papers, 22.4K citations

Huaming Li

30 papers, 1.7K citations

Arne Thomas

20 papers, 10.1K citations

Hui Xu

20 papers, 1.2K citations

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