About: GRASP is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5457 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 112708 citation(s).
01 Mar 1995-Journal of Global Optimization
TL;DR: This paper defines the various components comprising a GRASP and demonstrates, step by step, how to develop such heuristics for combinatorial optimization problems.
Abstract: Today, a variety of heuristic approaches are available to the operations research practitioner. One methodology that has a strong intuitive appeal, a prominent empirical track record, and is trivial to efficiently implement on parallel processors is GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures). GRASP is an iterative randomized sampling technique in which each iteration provides a solution to the problem at hand. The incumbent solution over all GRASP iterations is kept as the final result. There are two phases within each GRASP iteration: the first intelligently constructs an initial solution via an adaptive randomized greedy function; the second applies a local search procedure to the constructed solution in hope of finding an improvement. In this paper, we define the various components comprising a GRASP and demonstrate, step by step, how to develop such heuristics for combinatorial optimization problems. Intuitive justifications for the observed empirical behavior of the methodology are discussed. The paper concludes with a brief literature review of GRASP implementations and mentions two industrial applications.
01 May 1999-IEEE Transactions on Computers
TL;DR: Experimental results obtained from a large number of benchmarks indicate that application of the proposed conflict analysis techniques to SAT algorithms can be extremely effective for aLarge number of representative classes of SAT instances.
Abstract: This paper introduces GRASP (Generic seaRch Algorithm for the Satisfiability Problem), a new search algorithm for Propositional Satisfiability (SAT). GRASP incorporates several search-pruning techniques that proved to be quite powerful on a wide variety of SAT problems. Some of these techniques are specific to SAT, whereas others are similar in spirit to approaches in other fields of Artificial Intelligence. GRASP is premised on the inevitability of conflicts during the search and its most distinguishing feature is the augmentation of basic backtracking search with a powerful conflict analysis procedure. Analyzing conflicts to determine their causes enables GRASP to backtrack nonchronologically to earlier levels in the search tree, potentially pruning large portions of the search space. In addition, by "recording" the causes of conflicts, GRASP can recognize and preempt the occurrence of similar conflicts later on in the search. Finally, straightforward bookkeeping of the causality chains leading up to conflicts allows GRASP to identify assignments that are necessary for a solution to be found. Experimental results obtained from a large number of benchmarks indicate that application of the proposed conflict analysis techniques to SAT algorithms can be extremely effective for a large number of representative classes of SAT instances.
01 Jun 1989-
TL;DR: Comparisons of the grasp taxonomy, the expert system, and grasp-quality measures derived from the analytic models reveal that the analytic measures are useful for describing grasps in manufacturing tasks despite the limitations in the models.
Abstract: Current analytical models of grasping and manipulation with robotic hands contain simplifications and assumptions that limit their application to manufacturing environments. To evaluate these models, a study was undertaken of the grasps used by machinists in a small batch manufacturing operation. Based on the study, a taxonomy of grasps was constructed. An expert system was also developed to clarify the issues involved in human grasp choice. Comparisons of the grasp taxonomy, the expert system, and grasp-quality measures derived from the analytic models reveal that the analytic measures are useful for describing grasps in manufacturing tasks despite the limitations in the models. In addition, the grasp taxonomy provides insights for the design of versatile robotic hands for manufacturing. >
01 Oct 1989-Computer Physics Communications
TL;DR: The Oxford MCP/MCDF and MCBP/BENA packages have been rewritten in FORTRAN 77 and combined in the new code, GRASP, which is more versatile than its predecessors, contains more stable and accurate numerical procedures and a simplified but more flexible interface.
Abstract: The Oxford MCP/MCDF and MCBP/BENA packages have been rewritten in FORTRAN 77 and combined in the new code, GRASP. This is more versatile than its predecessors, contains more stable and accurate numerical procedures and a simplified but more flexible interface. Array dimensions and installation-dependent parameters may be set by the user. All known errors in previous versions have been eliminated. A comprehensive user's manual is now provided as supplementary documentation.
01 Oct 2004-
TL;DR: Building on two widely acclaimed previous editions, Craig Larman has updated this book to fully reflect the new UML 2 standard, to help you master the art of object design, and to promote high-impact, iterative, and skillful agile modeling practices.
Abstract: “This edition contains Larman's usual accurate and thoughtful writing. It is a very good book made even better.” -Alistair Cockburn, author, Writing Effective Use Cases and Surviving OO Projects “Too few people have a knack for explaining things. Fewer still have a handle on software analysis and design. Craig Larman has both.” -John Vlissides, author, Design Patterns and Pattern Hatching “People often ask me which is the best book to introduce them to the world of OO design. Ever since I came across it Applying UML and Patterns has been my unreserved choice.” -Martin Fowler, author, UML Distilled and Refactoring “This book makes learning UML enjoyable and pragmatic by incrementally introducing it as an intuitive language for specifying the artifacts of object analysis and design. It is a well written introduction to UML and object methods by an expert practitioner.” -Cris Kobryn, Chair of the UML Revision Task Force and UML 2.0 Working Group A brand new edition of the world's most admired introduction to object-oriented analysis and design with UML Fully updated for UML 2 and the latest iterative/agile practices Includes an all-new case study illustrating many of the book's key pointsApplying UML and Patterns is the world's #1 business and college introduction to “thinking in objects”-and using that insight in real-world object-oriented analysis and design. Building on two widely acclaimed previous editions, Craig Larman has updated this book to fully reflect the new UML 2 standard, to help you master the art of object design, and to promote high-impact, iterative, and skillful agile modeling practices.Developers and students will learn object-oriented analysis and design (OOA/D) through three iterations of two cohesive, start-to-finish case studies. These case studies incrementally introduce key skills, essential OO principles and patterns, UML notation, and best practices. You won't just learn UML diagrams-you'll learn how to apply UML in the context of OO software development.Drawing on his unsurpassed experience as a mentor and consultant, Larman helps you understand evolutionary requirements and use cases, domain object modeling, responsibility-driven design, essential OO design, layered architectures, “Gang of Four” design patterns, GRASP, iterative methods, an agile approach to the Unified Process (UP), and much more. This edition's extensive improvements include A stronger focus on helping you master OOA/D through case studies that demonstrate key OO principles and patterns, while also applying the UML New coverage of UML 2, Agile Modeling, Test-Driven Development, and refactoring Many new tips on combining iterative and evolutionary development with OOA/D Updates for easier study, including new learning aids and graphics New college educator teaching resources Guidance on applying the UP in a light, agile spirit, complementary with other iterative methods such as XP and Scrum Techniques for applying the UML to documenting architectures A new chapter on evolutionary requirements, and much moreApplying UML and Patterns, Third Edition, is a lucid and practical introduction to thinking and designing with objects-and creating systems that are well crafted, robust, and maintainable.